APA 6e Guide: Based on Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.

Running head: APA 6E GUIDE 1

Ver. 2017.10.20

APA 6e Guide: Based on Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.

Off Campus Library Services

Indiana Wesleyan University

APA 6E GUIDE 2

Ver. 2017.10.20

Table of Contents

Writing Your Paper …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5 Getting Started ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5

Creating an Outline ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5 Formatting Your Paper ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5

General Format …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5 Title Page …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5 Abstract ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6

Body of the Paper………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6 References Page ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7

Tables, Figures, Appendices …………………………………………………………………………………………. 7

Template for an APA Paper ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7 APA Video Helps ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8

Citing Sources in Text …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8

Plagiarism ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8 In Text Citations …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 9

Secondary Sources ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13

Lists or Seriation …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13 Headings ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13

Credibility in Using Sources, e.g. Wikipedia ……………………………………………………………………. 14 Sources Needing Only an In Text Citation ……………………………………………………………………….. 15

Biblical Entries or Classical Works ……………………………………………………………………………… 15 Personal Communication ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 15

Numbers in APA ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 16 Creating the References …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 16

Using the Cite Feature in the Library Databases ……………………………………………………………. 16

General Formatting Tips for APA References Citations …………………………………………………. 17 Most Commonly Used References ………………………………………………………………………………….. 18

References – Archival Documents ……………………………………………………………………………….. 18 References – Books……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 18 References—Book Chapter from a Collection of Works by Various Authors ……………………. 18

References – Book Review …………………………………………………………………………………………. 19 References – E-books ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 19

References – Courseware E-Textbook………………………………………………………………………….. 20 References – Kindle Books …………………………………………………………………………………………. 20

References – Reference Book Article, No Author or Editor ……………………………………………. 21 References – Brochure ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 21 References — Theses and/or Dissertations …………………………………………………………………….. 21 References – Newspaper Article (Print) ……………………………………………………………………….. 22 References – Online Newspaper Article ……………………………………………………………………….. 22

References – Newsletter Article, no author …………………………………………………………………… 22 References – Magazine Articles ………………………………………………………………………………….. 23 References – Journal/Periodical Articles ………………………………………………………………………. 23 References – Journal/Periodical Articles With a DOI …………………………………………………….. 24

References – Journal/Periodical Articles Without a DOI. ……………………………………………….. 25

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References – In Press Article ………………………………………………………………………………………. 25 References — Technical Reports, Research Reports, Non Newspaper or Journal Articles ….. 26 References — Technical Reports, Research Reports, Corporate Author …………………………… 26

References — Web Pages …………………………………………………………………………………………… 27 Other Kinds of Reference Examples: ………………………………………………………………………………. 27

References – Annual Company Report (taken from the company web site). ……………………… 27 References – ATLA Monographs ………………………………………………………………………………… 27 References – Blog Post and Blog Comment ………………………………………………………………….. 27

References – Business Plan from Business Plans Handbook (Gale Virtual Reference Library)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 28 References — CINAHL Evidence-Based Care Sheets …………………………………………………….. 28

References – Cochrane Library …………………………………………………………………………………… 28 References – Course Supplemental ……………………………………………………………………………… 28 References – Court Decisions ……………………………………………………………………………………… 29 References – Company Profiles and Industry Profiles (found in EBSCOHost Business Source

Complete) …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 29 References – Company Form 10-K ……………………………………………………………………………… 30

References – ERIC Documents …………………………………………………………………………………… 30 References – Films on Demand Streaming Media (Title) ……………………………………………….. 30

References – Films on Demand Streaming Media (Segment) ………………………………………….. 31 References – First Research Industry Reports ……………………………………………………………….. 31 References – Government Web Site …………………………………………………………………………….. 31

References – Images/Graphics/Photographs………………………………………………………………….. 32

References – Lecture from a Class ………………………………………………………………………………. 33 References – Legislation, Statutes and Regulations ……………………………………………………….. 33 References – Motion Picture ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 33

References – Music Recording ……………………………………………………………………………………. 33 References – Podcast …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 34

References — PowerPoint Slides ………………………………………………………………………………….. 34 References – Software ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 34 References – Standard & Poor’s NetAdvantage …………………………………………………………….. 34

References – Student Handbook (IWU publication) ………………………………………………………. 34 References – Student Paper ………………………………………………………………………………………… 35

References – Syllabus ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 35

References – Television Show, One Time Occurrence …………………………………………………… 35

References – TREN document (Theological Research Exchange Network). …………………….. 35 References – University Catalog …………………………………………………………………………………. 36 References – UpToDate™ database …………………………………………………………………………….. 36 References – Video ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 36 References – YouTube Videos ……………………………………………………………………………………. 37

PowerPoint™ Presentations and APA ……………………………………………………………………………… 37 APA Style CENTRAL™ ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 37 Formatting Your Paper in Word ……………………………………………………………………………………… 38

General Paper Formatting …………………………………………………………………………………………… 38 Setting up the Running Head ………………………………………………………………………………………. 39

Running Head in Word 2010 and subsequent versions …………………………………………………… 39

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Counting the Characters in the Running Head ………………………………………………………………. 39 Formatting Tables ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 40 Formatting Figures …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 41

Removing Hyperlinks for URLs ………………………………………………………………………………….. 43 Reference List Creation for WORD 2010 and all subsequent versions……………………………… 44

Getting Help with APA ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 44 APA Research Paper Example: Sample Formatting With APA Writing Helps ……………………… 45

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APA 6e Guide

Writing Your Paper

Getting Started

 Write from an outline or a concept map.

 The first draft should be a rough form of the paper. Return to the paper a day or two later to write the final draft.

 Use the spell check option in your word processing program.

 Use Grammarly, free to IWU N&G students. (http://www.grammarly.com/edu)

 Consider having a friend proofread your paper.

Creating an Outline

APA does not provide instructions for formatting an outline, but your instructor may request that

an outline be included with your paper. More information about creating an outline is available

from the Purdue OWL site, Four Main Components for Effective Outlines,

https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/544/01/

Formatting Your Paper

General Format

 8 1/2 x 11 paper.

 Double space (everything).

 Margins are set at 1-inch on all four sides. (This is a default setting for Word.)

 Use only left justify.

 Allow your computer to move automatically to the next line, unless starting a new paragraph. This is called wordwrapping.

 Font-size 12, Times New Roman is the preferred font.

 Pages numbered in sequence starting with the Title Page.

 Use an active voice.

 A medium to formal tone is preferable for academic writing, e.g. slang and contractions should not be used.

Title Page

 Identify the title page with a Running head that is flush left and starts: Running head: TITLE IN ALL CAPS. (Substitute the title for your paper. This will

change with every paper.) The title itself (in all capitals) should not exceed 50 spaces. It

may need to be shortened from the end of the title. It does not have to be word for word

but should convey the same idea as your full title. See the Sample Reference Paper at the

end of this document for an example.

 The page number is placed in the upper right hand corner at the 1-inch margin from the right edge of the paper; ½ inch from the top of the page. Paging starts with page 1 on the

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title page and continues throughout the paper. It should be on the same line as the

running head and will be in the Header area of the Word document.

 Space down approximately two to three inches from the top of the paper. APA states that the title page info should be centered and placed in the upper one-half of the page.

 Include the full title, your name, and the institution. These words are typed in Title Case. Additionally, per the instructor’s direction, you may add the date and course

identification, IWU plagiarism statement per your program’s and instructor’s

requirements.

 All of these are double-spaced and centered.

 See sample paper at the end of this Guide.

 See video on how to set up your Title Page in Word. (http://media.indwes.edu/media/APA+Title+Page/1_ztcegu2g)

Abstract

 An abstract generally is not required. Check with your instructor.

 If it is, it is the second page of your paper after the title page.

 It is a separate page.

 Abstract is centered as the title at the top of the page and is not in bold or all caps.

 The abstract uses a block paragraph format (no indention). The abstract should be about 150-250 words.

 See video from APA Style CENTRAL on how to write the abstract and add keywords. (http://0-apastylecentral.apa.org.oak.indwes.edu/learn/browse/QG-59)

Body of the Paper

 The running head continues, on every page, with associated page number, but the words, Running head, are omitted. Use just the title (or truncated title per instruction under Title

Page) in all caps throughout the remainder of the paper. It is typed on the left hand

margin. See Section Formatting Your Paper in Word, Setting Up the Running head, for

formatting directions in Word.

 On the first page of text (page 2 if no abstract; page 3 if there is an abstract), repeat the full title, centered, one the first line available to type in the main body area of the Word

page. It is typed in a combination of upper/lower case letters, or Title Case. This includes

capitalizing all main word, proper nouns and any other words of four letters or more.

 Double space throughout the body of the paper.

 APA allows the use of two spaces following any punctuation mark such as periods, question marks or exclamation marks. However, you may have a professor who prefers

only one space in the body text of the paper. The important thing is to be consistent

throughout. So, if you start with two spaces after each punctuation mark in the body text,

continue that practice consistently through the entire paper.

 The References list is an exception to this rule, as in a Reference only one space is used after any punctuation mark.

 Anything that is written in the body of the paper that is not an original thought, idea, fact, statistic of the student’s must include an in text citation. (See Section Citing Sources In

Text for examples and fuller explanation.) With the exception of personal communication

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and classical works, all of these sources must be listed in the References at the end of the

paper.

 At the end of the written portion of the paper, enter a page break (word processing) so that the References page will start on a new page.

 See sample paper at the end of this Guide.

References Page

 Start the reference list on a new page. Inserting a page break at the end of the body of your paper will always keep your References at the top of a new page.

 Any source listed on the References page must be cited in the body of the paper.

 List references in alphabetical order.

 Type the word “References” in upper and lowercase letters – centered at the top of the page. Even if your paper only has one source that was used, this format should be used.

 Double-space all entries. Use only one space after a punctuation mark.

 Use hanging indent format. See Section Reference List Creation for Word for word processing instructions.

 Use the official, two-letter U.S. Postal Service abbreviations for all states. (https://about.usps.com/who-we-are/postal-history/state-abbreviations.pdf)

 See the last two pages of the sample paper at the end of this Guide.

 See video on how to type the References page in Word. (http://media.indwes.edu/media/Microsoft+Word+and+Your+References+Page/1_qyy2zj

t3)

Tables, Figures, Appendices

 Some papers necessitate additional explanatory information that fits better at the end of the paper rather than in the paper. They follow, immediately after the References page.

o Tables – start each on a new page; caption is above the table. o Figures – start each on a new page; caption is below the figure. o Appendices – Start each on a new page.

 Label each item sequentially, e.g. Table 1; Table 2 or Figure 1, Figure 2 or Appendix A, Appendix B, etc.

 In a shorter paper or per instruction from your faculty, you may want to insert figures in the body of your paper where the information is discussed rather than at the end of the

paper.

 Formatting for tables and figures is discussed in Section General Paper Formatting, Formatting Tables and Figures.

Template for an APA Paper

 A template which includes the correct margins, running head, pagination, and helps for headings within the paper, References entries, etc., is available from the APA Style page

(http://www2.indwes.edu/ocls >> APA Style, under Key Links >> APA Paper Template).

https://about.usps.com/who-we-are/postal-history/state-abbreviations.pdf
http://media.indwes.edu/media/Microsoft+Word+and+Your+References+Page/1_qyy2zjt3
http://media.indwes.edu/media/Microsoft+Word+and+Your+References+Page/1_qyy2zjt3
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APA Video Helps

 Several short APA video helps are available from the APA Style page. These are short videos specific to certain topics of APA, e.g. how to cite a book; how to cite a journal

article, etc.

 An overview video on APA formatting is available on the APA Style CENTRAL page. (http://www2.indwes.edu/ocls >> APA Style CENTRAL, under Key Links >> Learn >>

Tutorials) The direct link to this video:

http://0-apastylecentral.apa.org.oak.indwes.edu/learn/browse/TUT-11

 A Quick Guide is also available on this topic. It is not as detailed but provides a very clear and basic overview:

http://0-apastylecentral.apa.org.oak.indwes.edu/learn/browse/QG-23

Citing Sources in Text

Plagiarism

 Plagiarism is defined as using someone else’s ideas, concepts, facts, illustrations, graphics, etc., as if they were their own. No credit is given to the original author of the

materials used.

 APA is one of several scholarly writing systems or styles that give the writer a way to appropriately and correctly use these ideas, concepts, facts, illustrations, graphics, etc, in

the text of their own writing.

 A video explaining how to avoid plagiarism and self-plagiarism is available on the APA Style CENTRAL site: http://0-apastylecentral.apa.org.oak.indwes.edu/learn/browse/TUT-

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 Think of APA as your insurance policy against plagiarism. Students sometimes use these concepts, may even paraphrase them and just hope that they do not get caught. The

problem with the penalties of plagiarism is not that the content is used from someone else

but that proper credit is not given to the original source. Citing sources in text gives the

student a method to use whenever you choose to quote or paraphrase from another

source.

 Quoting (word for word from the original source) or paraphrasing (restatement of the original source in your own words) requires an in text citation. Here are two methods that

can be used for this illustrated source.

Otani, K., Herrmann, P. A., & Kurz, R. S. (2011). Improving patient satisfaction in hospital

care settings. Health Services Management Research, 24(4), 163-169.

https://doi.org/10.1258/hsmr.2011.011008

 Quoting:

o “Their professional norms focus on the quality of care that they provide and the need to continuously improve it” (Otani, Hermann, & Kurz, 2011, p. 168).

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o Otani, Hermann, and Kurz (2008) emphasized that “their professional norms focus on the quality of care that they provide and the need to continuously

improve it” (p. 168).

 Paraphrasing: o Nursing by its very nature emphasizes the care that is given to patients and the

need to continually look for ways to better that care (Otani, Hermann, & Kurz,

2011).

o Otani, Hermann, and Kurz (2011) stated that nursing by its very nature emphasizes the care that is given to patients and the need to continually look for

ways to better that care.

 The original content of the article was used and credit was given to Otani, Hermann and Kurz. By looking in the student’s References list the reader could easily determine which

entry it was if they cared to go to the original source.

 Proper citation leaves no doubt in a reader’s mind who originated the concepts, phrasing,

or experiences expressed in a document. Students sometimes think that they have done

their due diligence when an in text citation is attached at the end of a paraphrase

containing multiple sentences. However, this construction may confuse the reader as to

what originated with the student and what originated with the cited source. Students

should either provide a citation for each applicable sentence or they should begin a multi-

sentence paraphrase with wording which indicates that what follows is derived from the

cited source. An example of this might be: Jones (2012) developed the theory of XYZ

based on the following four concepts. The first concept is . . . .

 These explanations underscore the need for properly quoting or paraphrasing materials in order to avoid plagiarism or self-plagiarism. The next section on In Text citations explains and provides

examples for the proper format of quotes and paraphrases.

 An over view of these topics is available in the Learn section of the APA Style CENTRAL site in the Quick Guide on Direct quotations and paraphrasing:

http://0-apastylecentral.apa.org.oak.indwes.edu/learn/browse/QG-25

In Text Citations

 Quoting a source is when you take the words exactly as they appear in the original source.

o Set off the quotation with quotation marks (less than 40 words) o Use an indented block quote (40 or more words) [See sample paper at the end of

this Guide].

o An in text citation for a quoted source should include author (or title if no author), copyright date, page number(s)/paragraph number(s) or section title.

 “Sentence of quoting from a source” (Wilson, 2010, p. 34). This is an example of a parenthetical in text citation.

 Wilson (2010) emphasizes “sentence of quoting from a source” (p. 34). This is an example of a narrative in text citation.

o The first time the source is used within a paragraph the author, date, and location information is given. If that same source is repeated within the same paragraph

with no other intervening source used, the date can be omitted if the format for the

in text citation is as follows: Almay and Lockerby (2007) pointed out ….. Almay

and Lockerby speculated…. If the parenthetical format for an in text citation is

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used, the author and date information should be repeated for all in text citations.

Example: (Almay & Lockerby, 2007).

o Examples of way to cite a direct quotation (less than 40 words):  According to Franco, Costa, Butler, and Almeda (2017) in “this model,

cognitive processes undergo a process of development” (p. 717).

 In 2017, Franco, Costa, Butler, and Almeda noted that in “this model, cognitive processes undergo a process of development” (p. 717).

 In “this model, cognitive processes undergo a process of development” (Franco, Costa, Butler & Almeda, 2017, p. 717).

“This model, cognitive processes undergo a process of development”

according to Franco, Costa, Butler, and Almeda (2017, p. 717).

 Franco, Costa, Butler and Almeda’s (2017) study concluded that in “this model, cognitive processes undergo a process of development (p. 717).

 Paraphrasing a source is when you take an idea, concept, etc., and restate it using your own words.

o It is not set off with quotation marks. o In text citation for a paraphrase should include the author (or title if no author),

and copyright date.

 Wilson (2010) recounted that information should be documented in a writing style. This is an example of a narrative in text citation.

 Information is documented in a writing style (Wilson, 2010). This is an example of a parenthetical in text citation.

o A good method of knowing for sure you are paraphrasing is to read the material until you understand it. Place the material aside and write out your paraphrase

from memory. It is not likely that you will write it down word for word. Then

give the appropriate citation per below!

 Quoting in text citations for one and multiple authors. Always cite what is in the first position of the References entry.

o One author  (Jones, 2010, p. 456).  Jones (2010) noted “…” (p. 456).

o Two authors  (Smith & Jones, 2009, para. 7).  Smith and Jones, (2009) acknowledged “…” (para.7).

o Three authors to five authors  (Smith, Jones, & Brown, 2009, Section Company History), for the first

time the source is cited. Thereafter, for that source, use (Smith et al.,

2009, section Company History).

 Smith, Jones, and Brown (2009) maintained”…” (p. 16). The next time that source is used it would be, Smith et al. (2009) writes “…” (p. 16).

o Six or more authors  The first time the source is used, note the first author with et al. White et

al. (2010) proposed….

 Any citation with more than seven authors also has a certain way to cite in the References list. The first six authors are all written out in the order

they appear in the original source. Then use three ellipses and list the last

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author listed. So if the source you are citing as 12 authors, write out the

first six listed on the source and the 12th author. Authors in the seventh

through eleventh positions are completely omitted. Here is an example of

an article that has 10 authors:

Logan, L., Harley, W. B., Pastor, J., Wing, L. S., Glasman, N., Hanson, L., . . . Hegedahl, P.

(1996). Observations on the state of empowerment in today’s organization.

Empowerment in Organizations, 4(1), 6–11. https://doi.org/10.1108/09684899610111025

o No author  Use the first few words of the title, since the title has now moved to the

first position in the References entry.

 For articles from periodicals, use quotation marks around the title and capitalize all significant words. (“Fun Learning APA,” 2010, p. 23)

 For books, online technical reports, use italics just like the title displays in the References list, but the significant words are capitalized, unlike the

corresponding References entry. (Using APA to Write Scholarly, 2013, p.

277).

 See example in the sample paper at the end of the document. There is an in text citation for “Servant Leadership,” n.d., para. 1) and its corresponding

References entry in the References list.

o Corporate author  Corporate author that is readily recognized by their acronym. (United

Nations [UN], 2008, section History).

 Corporate author with no acronym or an acronym that is not easily recognized or is used by multiple organizations/companies. (Lawrence

North High School, 2000, p. 5).

 Paraphrasing in text citation for one and multiple authors. o One author

 (Jones, 2010).  Jones (2010) noted ….

o Two authors  (Smith & Jones, 2009).  Smith and Jones, (2009) acknowledged ….

o Three authors to five authors  (Smith, Jones, & Brown, 2009), for the first time the source is cited.

Thereafter, for that source, use (Smith et al., 2009).

 Smith, Jones, and Brown (2009) maintained…. The next time that source is used it would be, Smith et al. (2009) wrote….

o Six or more authors  The first time the source is used, just note the first author with et al. White

et al. (2010) proposed….

o No author

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 Use the first few words of the title, since the title has now moved to the first position in the References entry.

 For articles from periodicals, book chapters, non-technical websites use quotation marks around the title and capitalize all significant words. (“Fun

Learning APA,” 2010)

 For books, technical reports found on the web, etc., use italics just like the title displays in the References list (American Psychological Association,

2010). Here is an example of an in text citation for a source with no

author: The title of the book is: Gray’s Anatomy. In the References list

the citation would be:

Gray’s anatomy: The anatomical basis of clinical practice (41st ed., 2016). New

York, NY: Elsevier.

The in text citation would be: (Gray’s Anatomy, 2016) for a paraphrase and

for a quote, it would include the page number after the date.

o Corporate author  Corporate author that readily recognized by their acronym. (United

Nations [UN], 2008).

 This is used the first time it is cited. Subsequent times the acronym only can be used (UN, 2008).

 Corporate author with no acronym or one that may refer to multiple corporate authors. (Lawrence North High School, 2000).

 When no date is apparent, use n.d. in place of the date position. (Webber, n.d.)

 When you have multiple sources with the same author and the same date, the reader must be able to differentiate between the sources. Each source is alphabetized in the

References list by the title since it is the first difference in the citation (same author(s)

and date). Then a small letter a, b, etc. is attached to the date. The date plus the small

letter are used in the References list and the in text citation. See sample References list at

the end of this document for an example. Each of the entries are Greenleaf, R. K. (1996).

One title is On becoming a servant-leader and one is Seeker and servant and one. The

first one is assigned (1996a) and the second one is assigned (1996b). The in text citations

for a paraphrase of the first entry would be (Greenleaf, 1996a).

 When you have multiple sources by the same author, but different dates, list them in your References by date order. For the in text, the date will point to the corresponding entry in

the References list.

 Sometimes there is a need to cite multiple sources because that idea/concept is repeated in several sources. The citations are included in the same parenthetical, in alphabetical

order. Here is an example (Brown, 2005; Lang, 2013; Smothers, 2003; & Wills, 2004).

 What needs to be cited: o Using words verbatim from another source. o Introducing facts, statistics, or illustrations that you find in another source. o Taking an idea, theory, or concept and building on it for your own conclusions. o When writing code or building on someone else’s code (computer programming). o Or, anytime that you are not sure if by not citing you might be guilty of

plagiarizing. (It is better to be safe than to plagiarize!)

 What does not need to be cited?

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o Your own ideas. o Your personal experiences. o Common knowledge:

 Information that most educated people already know.  Information that can very quickly be found in most dictionaries or

encyclopedias.

 Information belonging to everyone. Some common sayings cannot be attributed to any one person. How do you know if it is common

knowledge? If it is mentioned in five or more sources.

Secondary Sources

 It is preferable to use the original quotation of a person, but occasionally, you see a quote that someone else has quoted in an article/book you are reading and you feel that using

the quote will be beneficial to your writing. This needs to be documented as a secondary

source.

o In text citation. The quote is from Christine Van Dae but it was in an article by F. De Meglio.

o Van Dae “we just don’t know what we’ll see with the final numbers three months after graduation” (as cited in De Meglio, 2013, para. 3).

o References entry would be for the website article by De Meglio. Van Dae is not cited in the References list.

o De Meglio, F. (2013, July 31). Harvard MBAs flee Wall Street, take pay cut. Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-07-31/harvard-mbas-

flee-wall-street-take-pay-cut#r=most%20popular

 Of course, this citation would be formatted per APA with double spacing and hanging indent.

 A Quick Guide for secondary sources is available on the APA Style CENTRAL pages at this link: http://0-apastylecentral.apa.org.oak.indwes.edu/learn/browse/QG-26

Lists or Seriation

 APA prefers the use of the following format for lists: o Separate paragraphs or long sentences (such as steps in a procedure) should use

numbered lists. See sample paper at the end of this Guide.

o Short words within a paragraph should use lowercase letters enclosed in parentheses, e.g. (a) word word, (b) word, and (c) word word word.

o Bulleted lists can be used although APA prefers the use of numbered or lettered lists.

 A Quick Guide on Lists is available on the APA Style CENTRAL pages at: http://0-apastylecentral.apa.org.oak.indwes.edu/learn/browse/QG-20

Headings

 Headings help break the paper into sections.

 Generally, a small paper will only need a couple of heading divisions.

 For a large paper, you can use up to 5 headings.

 Headings are used in the body of the paper. The abstract, title, chapter divisions or References are not part of the heading structure.

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 Do not use Introduction as a heading right under the title on page 2 as it is assumed that the first couple of paragraphs of the paper are the introduction.

 A note about the headings shown in this document. They are not per APA. The shading and bold type were used to emphasize and facilitate navigation of the document.

 A Quick Guide explaining APA headings is available from APA Style CENTRAL at: http://0-apastylecentral.apa.org.oak.indwes.edu/learn/browse/QG-21

 Example of headings in APA:

Level 1 – Centered, Boldface, Upper and Lowercase

Start paragraph with normal paragraph indent, double-spaced.

Level 2 — Flush Left, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase

Start paragraph with normal paragraph indent, double-spaced.

Level 3 — Indented, boldface, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period.

Sentence starts immediately after the period.

Level 4 — Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase ending with a period. Start paragraph

with normal double-spacing, in line with heading.

Level 5 — Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. Start

first paragraph in line with heading.

Credibility in Using Sources, e.g. Wikipedia

Many journals, by nature of their publisher, go through a peer-review process. An expert

editorial board determines that any article printed in that journal is new research and trusted

research. These are called peer-reviewed, refereed, or even scholarly. Magazines or newspapers,

such as, Time, Business Week, Health, Reader’s Digest, New York Times, Wall Street Journal,

etc., are not peer-reviewed sources. See OCLS tutorial,

http://www2.indwes.edu/ocls/Scholarly_Journal_Tutor.html

Non-fiction books, especially if coming from textbook publishers, e.g. Pearson, Thomson, etc.,

or university presses are considered peer-reviewed as they go through an editorial process in

their publication process. Generally, you can trust non-fiction books.

Web sites are not considered peer-reviewed. There are some very good web sites and some that

are just plain inaccurate information. There is no peer-review process as anyone can put up a

web page if you have a server to store the web file. The researcher has to serve as the one to

determine authenticity of a web page. OCLS provides a tutorial on criteria to look for when

evaluating a web site at the following URL, http://www2.indwes.edu/ocls/WebEvaluation.html.

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One of these web sites that is not considered appropriate for academic work is Wikipedia,

http://www.wikipedia.org. Although it provides good background information, by its very

nature, it is a wiki, which is a fluid, changing document and can be edited by anyone. Each page

has an Edit tab. This tab gives information about how recently a page has been changed in some

way. Even the most benign topics reflect a change within the past month. One way you might be

able to use Wikipedia is to scroll to the bottom of an entry page and look at the sources that are

listed for writing that page. Your faculty probably will not accept a Wikipedia article as a source.

Sources Needing Only an In Text Citation

Biblical Entries or Classical Works

 References from the Bible or other classical works (Greek & Roman) are cited in text but no entry is required in the References list.

 Cite the chapter, verse, of the source (since these are uniform across versions) and the version used. An example for a Bible references would be: (Rom. 3:21 New

International Version).

 APA does not provide a list of approved abbreviations for books of the Bible. It is appropriate to use lists provided by other writing styles, such as MLA or Chicago. Here

is a suggested list provided by another institution:

http://hbl.gcc.libguides.com/BibleAbbrevTurabian

 If you do not change versions in your paper, you do not have to repeat the version.

 A second Biblical reference in the same paper would be: (John 3:16).

 This kind of citation only applies to the actual scripture or classical work. Commentary of the scripture or classical work would be cited like any other book with an in text

citation and appropriate References entry. This is an example of how one might cite and

reference a study Bible with notes or commentary:

Life application study Bible. (2005). Grand Rapids, MI: Tyndale.

 For an in text citation of the commentary from this Bible, an example of an in text citation: “Joshua was a brilliant military leader and a strong spiritual influence” (Life

Application Study Bible, 2005, p. 300).

Personal Communication

 Includes email, interviews or any method of communication that is not archived. This would include class lectures, handouts as they are not publically available.

 The same format is used for any kind of personal communication. Either format below is acceptable.

o “The church will continue to provide an emphasis in small groups because that is what has allowed us to grow the way we have” (B. Lyle, personal communication,

May 5, 2013).

o B. Lyle stated that “the church will continue to provide an emphasis in small groups because that is what has allowed us to grow the way we have” (personal

communication, May 5, 2013).

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Numbers in APA

 Numbers zero through nine are written out. For all subsequent numbers, the numeral can be used, e.g. There were 59 subjects used in the study. There were four that were in a

post-retirement age bracket.

Creating the References

Using the Cite Feature in the Library Databases

Many of the databases that are provided through the library are provided by third party vendors,

e.g. EBSCO provides 40 unique databases; ProQuest provides 22 unique databases. Once the

link is made to a database, one leaves the IWU servers and goes to databases outside the control

of IWU. Some of these vendors make an attempt at providing an APA reference for articles in

the databases; however, these are generally not accurate. Since they are using computers to

generate the citation, they cannot always account for the variations of italics, capitalization, or

including information not provided by the database citation, e.g. publication’s home web page

that is required for APA.

It is the student’s responsibility to verify each database provided APA citation to the source for

APA issued to students, e.g. APA 6e Guide; Publication Manual of the American Psychological

Association, 6th ed. To illustrate what you might find, here are 3 graphics. The first one is how

an article looks in the database list and the 2nd one shows the database generated citation for

APA and the 3rd is the corrected version according to correct APA.

Example 1: As the article looks in the database listing, Business Source Complete.

Example 2: The database provided APA citation.

Example 3: Corrected APA format per APA 6th ed.

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In this example, the changes that should be made are the title (change GOOD to good) and add

the publication’s web home page because no DOI number was provided for this article.

The following pages give examples that mirror the most commonly used sources by students.

Unlike the body of the paper, only one space is used after any punctuation mark in the

References list.

General Formatting Tips for APA References Citations

Here are some basic rules for citations that are characteristic of many sources.

 Use the author’s surname and only initials for any first, second or third names.

 A comma separates all authors.

 An ampersand (&, and sign) is included between the last and next to last authors, even if only 2 authors, (Jones, & Brown, 2015).

 The date is always enclosed in parentheses.

 A period follows the date.

 Use only the year unless there is no volume and issue number given or it is a daily publication, such as a newspaper, e.g. (2015, August 25). Start with the year, then the

month and day. Write out the months.

 Book titles, journal/magazine titles and web sites are all lower case except the first word, first word after a colon and any proper nouns. This rule supersedes what you might find

in a database format for APA!

 Book titles, journal titles and titles of a web technical report, e.g. PDF, are in italics.

 Journal titles are capitalized except for insignificant words within the title, less than 4 letters, e.g. Journal of Business Ethics; Journal for the Study of the New Testament.

 For a book title, the city and state or country, are listed first, followed by a colon, and then the publisher.

 Omit words like, Inc. Co. Publishers, from the publisher name.

 Following a journal title, use a comma, followed by the volume number in italics, no space, and then the issue number is parentheses. The issue number is in regular font.

 A comma follows the issue number, followed by the page range. The range should be fully written out, e.g. 345-349, NOT 345-9.

 There are three acceptable ways to display the DOI in the References list. The are given below as they historically were introduced, with the third one being the preferred display

as it is the newest and is supported by CrossRef.

o doi:10.1007/s10551-016-3061-6 (Introduced approximately 2009) o http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10551-016-3061-6 (introduced in 2012) o https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-016-3061-6 (introduced in 2017)

 As of 2017, APA is allowing hyperlinks to be displayed as underlined. However, if this is done, it needs to be consistently done throughout the entire References list. Hyperlinks

can be removed in your word processor. See Section: Removing Hyperlinks for URLs.

If you are unsure as to what to do, consult your professor as they may have a preference.

 When a URL or DOI number end a citation, never use punctuation following them.

 A URL can be broken across lines to make it fit within the lines, however, never break it after punctuation, always before the punctuation.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10551-016-3061-6
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-016-3061-6
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Most Commonly Used References

References – Archival Documents

Costley, K. C. (2014). More feet hitting the road: Ten ways to get impoverished childrens’ test

scores up. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED545372)

Klein-Collins, R., & Olson, R. (2014). Random access: The Latino student experience with prior

learning assessment [Monograph]. Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/

 The APA 6th edition gives two ways to document something that is limited to only one database in availability, such as the ERIC database.

 The examples above illustrate both methods. These are representative of the ERIC documents, not the ERIC journal articles.

References – Books

Anderson, D. (2001). Beyond change management: Advanced strategies for today’s

transformational leaders. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.

 Always include the state postal code with cities or the country for foreign cities, e.g. New York, NY or London, England.

Bass, B. M., & Bass, R. (2008). The Bass handbook of leadership: Theory, research, and

managerial applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Free Press.

 Sometimes a book may be a revision of the original and be a 2nd, 3rd, 4th, revised etc., edition of the original. That information is important and should be included in the

citation per the above example. Do not use superscript for “nd,” “rd,”, or “th.” If it was

simply a revised edition, use, (Rev. ed.).

References—Book Chapter from a Collection of Works by Various Authors

 This includes books where each chapter or section are written by different authors. Generally, the names listed on the book title page are editors of the entire book.

 The author of the chapter is what gets cited in text, not the editors of the entire book. Although the editors are given in the References entry, they are never cited in text. In the

example below, the in text citation would be (Goodman, 1955) or (Goodman, 1955, p.

96).

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 Page numbers for the actual section/article used are given in the References entry, immediately following the book title.

 A Quick Guide in APA Style CENTRAL on this topic is available at this link: http://0-apastylecentral.apa.org.oak.indwes.edu/learn/browse/QG-5

Goodman, M. (1955). Organizational inertia or corporate change momentum. In D. P. Cushman

& S. Sanderson (Eds.), Communicating organizational change: A management

perspective (pp. 95-112). Albany, NY: New York Press.

References – Book Review

Penny, J. (2010). Outliers: The story of success [Review of the book Outliers, by M. Gladwell].

Personnel Psychology, 63(1), 258-260. Retrieved from

http://www.personnelpsychology.com

References – E-books

 Do include a DOI number*, if available. *See Section References – Journal/Periodical Articles and following for a further discussion of DOI numbers.

 Provide the format that was used, e.g. Ebsco version, Kindle DX version, Sony version, Nook version, iBook version, Adobe Digital Editions version, VitalSource version, etc.,

if you download the book. For example, when EBSCO books are downloaded to your

local computer, they require Adobe Digital Editions. This would be the format for the

downloaded book. That notation would go in square brackets, right after the title. The

second example below demonstrates this.

 If you read the book online from within the database, e.g. ProQuest EbookCentral, then no explanatory format information is needed. The first example below demonstrates this.

 For an example of a VitalSource e-textbook, see the next section: References – Courseware E-Textbook.

 Note that the original publisher information is included, but the URL is the URL of the publisher of the e-text of the book.

Fletcher, S. N. E. (2015). Cultural sensibility in healthcare. Indianapolis, IN: Sigma Theta Tau.

Retrieved from http://www.proquest.com/products-services/ebooks/ebooks-main.html

Johnson, M. (2011). The diversity code: Unlock the secrets to making differences work in the

real world [Adobe Digital version]. New York, NY: AMACON. Retrieved from

http://www.ebscohost.com

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References – Courseware E-Textbook

 Many classes are using e-textbooks that are published by a variety of publishers.

 These textbooks are made available electronically through a digital textbook platform, VitalSource. VitalSource is the publisher responsible for converting the book (no matter

the original publisher) to an e-text. So, the book could be originally published by Prentice

Hall or Wiley, but VitalSource is the publisher of the e-text version.

 The example shows a typical e-textbook available through VitalSource.

 Publisher information is from the original print version, but the URL represents the publisher of the e-text.

Anderson, E. T., & McFarlane, J. M. (2015). Community as partner: Theory and practice in

nursing (7th ed.) [VitalSource version]. Philadephia, PA: Wolter Kluwers. Retrieved

from http://bookshelf.vitalsource.com

Author A., & Author B. (2012). Title of book (10th ed.) [VitalSouce version]. City Location,

State Code: Publisher.

 Do not use Wikipedia as a reference book source. Castronovo, R. (2006). Death. In J. Gabler-Hover & R. Sattelmeyer (Eds.), American history

throughout literature 1820-1870 (Vol. 1, pp. 311-316). Retrieved from

http://www.gale.com

Satterwhite, M. (2007). Job enrichment. In B. S. Kaliski (Ed.), Encyclopedia of business and

finance (2nd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 444-446). Retrieved from http://www.gale.com

References – Kindle Books

Dweck, C. S. (2009). Mindset [Kindle version]. New York, NY: Random House. Retreived from

http://www.amazon.com

 Kindle books are proprietary e-books produced by Amazon.

 Their older generation Kindle readers did not provide page numbers, only a location

marker. However, that location varied from user to user depending on what font they

used for their reader and what size the text was. APA does not recommend using location

marker for an APA citation where a direct quote has been used.

 Instead, use the format per other sources with no pagination. These include:

o Counting paragraphs

o Providing a chapter number and paragraph number.

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o Providing a chapter, section (if available) and paragraph number.

o An example might be: (Dweck, 2009, Chap. 3, para. 19).

 From Amazon’s third generation readers and more recent, by clicking on the menu

option, the page number is given. This is acceptable to use per APA formatting for a

direct quote.

 If in doubt, paraphrase the source so that a page number is not required.

References – Reference Book Article, No Author or Editor

Empowerment. (2010). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary. Retrieved from

http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/empowerment

References – Brochure

 The square brackets in APA after the title are used to denote any unusual format apart from books, journal articles, newspaper articles, web sites, etc. This could include

brochures, maps, DVDs, paintings, etc.

 When a corporate author is used and they are also the publisher of the source, use Author in place of the normal publisher location.

 When there is no author, the in text citation would be the title. It can be shortened, however. An example of an in text citation for the second example below might be

(DiSC Classic, 2001, p. 3).

 Note: your title may vary as the one in the DiSC citation is no longer in print. Use the title that is on the front of your booklet and be sure that you identify the date and

publisher and change as needed.

American Heart Association. (n.d.). Heart disease [Brochure]. Dallas, TX: Author.

DiSC classic: Personal profile system 2800 [Brochure]. (2001). Minneapolis, MN: Inscape

Publishing.

References — Theses and/or Dissertations

Mayhew, J. A. (2008). Adult learners’ perceptions of their employers’ leadership behaviors and

their own readiness for self-directed learning (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global database. (UMI No. 3344706)

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Gazan, L. O. (2009). Patterns and trends of effective teaching in the nursing simulation lab

(Unpublished master’s thesis). Indiana Wesleyan University, Marion, IN.

 Dissertations published in a print edition or uploaded to ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global database are considered published works and would follow the pattern of the first

example below.

 The second example might apply to a thesis or dissertation that was never printed and bound or uploaded to any online repository.

References – Newspaper Article (Print)

Dunlap, K. (2017, August 14). Love for antique tractors crosses family’s generations.

Indianapolis Star, p. 8A.

 Use the full date for newspapers including the month and day.

 Include the section of the newspaper, not just the page number. How a newspaper displays that may differ, e.g. the letter may come first. Use what you see on the page

 Usually there is no volume or issue numbering.

 An APA Style CENTRAL Quick Guide covering citing newspaper articles is available at this URL: http://0-apastylecentral.apa.org.oak.indwes.edu/learn/browse/QG-1

References – Online Newspaper Article

Kang, C. (2010, February 10). Google to launch turbo-speed Internet trials. The Washington

Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com

Investor sues Uber ex-CEO Kalanick. (2017, August 11). Wall Street Journal, p. A1. Retrieved

from http://www.wsj.com

 For online newspaper articles only give the entry point URL for the newspaper. This allows for unavailable or extinct links. This is usually the publisher’s web home page.

 The above examples used the home page for the Washington Post and for Wall Street Journal. It is not a link to the article. The reader may not be able to get to the article if a

subscription-based library database was used.

 Do not give a retrieval date.

 This information is also covered in the APA Style CENTRAL Quick Guide http://0-apastylecentral.apa.org.oak.indwes.edu/learn/browse/QG-1

References – Newsletter Article, no author

Learning to write using APA writing style. (2009, October). APA Writing Newsletter. Retrieved

from http://www.indwes.edu/ocls/APA/newsletter.pdf

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References – Magazine Articles

Damiano, P. (2010, December/January). Incredible India. Working Mother, 33(1), 50–52.

Willis, A. (2010, February 10). China tops Germany as no. 1 exporter. BusinessWeek. Retrieved

from http://www.businessweek.com

 If you find the article full text in one of the library’s databases, APA says to use the entry point URL for the magazine. [You may need to Google the title to locate this or look it

up in Ulrich’s Global Serials Directory available from the IWU library databases listing,

under General Resources.] Alternatively, treat the article as if you found it in a print

journal and omit the retrieval statement. [For some programs that use an APA manual,

follow the instructions per your book, citing the journal publisher’s web site.]

 Magazines are those titles that are published, daily, weekly or monthly and have a popular appeal. The article authors are generally employees of the magazine publisher.

Some examples of magazines are Time, Business Week, Forbes, Prevention, Christianity

Today, etc.

 When your instructor asks for scholarly or academic articles, magazine articles do not qualify. When in doubt, consult OCLS!

 As yet, publishers of magazines are not assigning a DOI, so you will need to use the publisher’s web home page (see below).

 For additional information on citing magazine articles, see the APA Style CENTRAL Quick Guide at http://0-apastylecentral.apa.org.oak.indwes.edu/learn/browse/QG-3

References – Journal/Periodical Articles

 There are 2 things to look for with a journal article. o If there is a DOI*, use that as the end part of the citation. o If there is no DOI, then use the journal publisher’s entry URL at the end of the

citation. For example, the home page for Forbes magazine is,

http://www.forbes.com

 Journal/periodical articles are generally considered scholarly or academic. They are not necessarily peer-reviewed. These articles are preferable in academic research. Many of

these kinds of journals do provide DOI’s, but not all of them do.

 The DOI number always starts with 10. The remainder of it is alpha-numeric. Database accession numbers or ISSN numbers are not the same thing as a DOI number. Neither

are used in APA for article citations—just the DOI#.

 When DOI#’s were first introduced to APA they were represented as doi:10.0000/0000. Since then, the display for DOI’s as evolved so currently there are three acceptable

formats. The key issue is consistency. Preferably use the latest format but which ever

you use, be consistent with that format for all of your paper. The newest formats show a

URL which is a searchable link to the publisher’s page for that article. Some journals

and CrossRef (see next section, References – Journal/Periodical Articles With a DOI,

for further explanation of CrossRef) are beginning to provide the newest format. See the

examples below.

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 The three acceptable formats, in order of how they have evolved from CrossRef: o doi:10.xxx/xxxxxx (~2009) o http://dx.doi.org/10.xxx/xxxxxx (~2012) o https://doi.org/10.xxx/xxxxxx (2017)

 *DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier. It is that article’s unique address on the internet. Depending on your access it may or may not lead you to the full text of the

article but the DOI will lead you to the citation information about the article.

 For additional information on citing journal articles, see the APA Style CENTRAL Quick Guide at http://0-apastylecentral.apa.org.oak.indwes.edu/learn/browse/QG-66

References – Journal/Periodical Articles With a DOI

Holmes, O., IV. (2010). Redefining the way we look at diversity: A review of recent diversity

and inclusion findings in organizational research. Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion: An

International Journal, 29(1), 131–135. doi:10.1108/02610151019255

Holmes, O, IV. (2010). Redefining the way we look at diversity: A review of recent diversity and

inclusion findings in organizational research. Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion: An

International Journal, 29(1), 131–135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02610151019255

Holmes, O, IV. (2010). Redefining the way we look at diversity: A review of recent diversity and

inclusion findings in organizational research. Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion: An

International Journal, 29(1), 131–135. https://doi.org/10.1108/02610151019255

 All three examples are correctly displayed, although the latter is preferred.

 Note that this one uses the IV as a designation for the author. Abbreviations, such as Sr., Jr., II, III, etc. are used in the References list, but titles are not, such as, PhD, EdD, RN,

etc. It would not be used for the in text citation.

Cook, D. M., & Bero, L. A. (2009). The politics of smoking in federal buildings: An executive

order case study. American Journal of Public Health, 99(9), 1588–1595.

https://doi.org/10.1025/APJH.2008.151829

 DOI numbers are found as follows. If these methods do not work, then you can assume that none has been assigned from the publisher.

 With the citation in the database. Sometimes it is available on the short version of the article and sometimes you have to click on the article title and look at the full citation.

There can be a specific field for it or it may be “tacked” on to the end of the abstract

field.

http://dx.doi.org/10.xxx/xxxxxx
https://doi.org/10.xxx/xxxxxx
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 It should be located on the first page of the article. It can be at the top or at the bottom or

along the side.

 You can use CrossRef. We have a link from the OCLS web pages. (http://www2.indwes.edu/ocls; click on: APA Style (under Key Links); click on: Locate a

DOI for your articles). You can copy and paste your citation into the box. If a DOI is

available, it will give it to you. It gives both formats per the discussion above.

 For a better understanding of where to locate the DOI# or the publisher’s home web site, see http://www2.indwes.edu/ocls/APA/ElectronicArticlesAPA.pps

References – Journal/Periodical Articles Without a DOI.

Hijzen, A., Upward, R., & Wright, P. W. (2010). The income losses of displaced workers.

Journal of Human Resources, 45(1), 243–269. Retrieved from

http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/jhr/

 For articles that have no discernible DOI number, use the publisher or journal’s entry page, just as for magazines.

 These can be found by looking at the Publication page in most EBSCOhost databases or simply using Google to search for the title.

 The database, Ulrich’s (listed under General Resources of the Article Databases) also provides the publishers web home page.

 If you are not using an APA manual for your program it may be appropriate to treat the article as if you retrieved it from a paper source. Thus omitting the sentence: Retrieved

from http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/jhr

References – In Press Article

 Articles that have been submitted and accepted for publication are in press. They are listed without giving volume, issue or paging until such time as they are published.

 If you have multiple entries by the same author, the in press article follows the published article.

 If there are multiple in press articles by the same author, use (in press-a, in press-b, etc.) and list them alphabetically by the first word after the date element.

 Emerald Insight provides access to in press articles. They are denoted with an E.

 It is preferable not to use these since they may still be in the peer-review process.

http://www.indwes.edu/ocls
http://www.indwes.edu/ocls/APA/ElectronicArticlesAPA.pps
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Kiran, K. (in press). Service quality and customer satisfaction: Perspectives from academics.

Library Review. Retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com

References — Technical Reports, Research Reports, Non Newspaper or Journal Articles

 Websites can be difficult because you may not be able to find all the information that is needed for a complete citation. The “parts” should include: Author. (Date). Title of the

page (Report No. or format). Retrieved from actual date from full URL.

 If the web page, in your opinion, will not change, the retrieval date is not needed.

 Be sure you copy the URL address accurately. When your paper is submitted it should be a working URL and take the reader to the web page cited.

 If a web page does not have an author, the title of the web page moves to the first position. Then that is what is cited in text. (See Quote; Paraphrasing, No Author).

 If a web page does not have a date, substitute (n.d.). That is what is used for the in text citation.

 APA provides a nice chart that documents some of the possibilities. http://blog.apastyle.org/files/how-to-cite-something-you-found-on-a-website-in-apa-

style—table-1.pdf

 A visual, interactive presentation on Website Reference is found on the APA Style CENTRAL pages at: http://0-apastylecentral.apa.org.oak.indwes.edu/learn/browse/QG-8

Lund, P. (2004, December 28). Technical report on management and ICT practices in PV

buildings (NNE5/2001/264D14.2). Retrieved from http://www.pvnord.org/meny/pdf

/Task%204.2%20Management%20and%20ICT%20Final%20report.pdf

References — Technical Reports, Research Reports, Corporate Author

 Some groups of web pages do not have a specific author for a particular page, but it is among other pages that are representing some corporate organization, association,

government office, etc. The 2nd example below demonstrates a document from a

government agency.

Indiana Wesleyan University. (2017-2018). University catalog: 2017-2018 catalog. Retrieved

from http://indwes.smartcatalogiq.com/en/2017-2018/Catalog

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families,

Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation. (2014, January). Putting the pieces

together: A program logic model for coaching in Head Start (Report # 2014-06).

http://blog.apastyle.org/files/how-to-cite-something-you-found-on-a-website-in-apa-style—table-1.pdf
http://blog.apastyle.org/files/how-to-cite-something-you-found-on-a-website-in-apa-style—table-1.pdf
http://0-apastylecentral.apa.org.oak.indwes.edu/learn/browse/QG-8
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Retrieved from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/opre/a_logic_model

_for_coaching_in_head_start_from_the_descriptive_study_of.pdf

References — Web Pages

 Titles of pages found on the web that are stand alone are italicized. An exception to this rule are blog posts, online forums, blog comments, status updates, etc.

 The format for a paraphrased in text citation would be as follows: (Bank Reconciliation Statement, n.d.)

 Include the retrieval date if the page could change over time.

 A Quick Guide from APA Style CENTRAL is available at: http://0-apastylecentral.apa.org.oak.indwes.edu/learn/browse/QG-8

Reh, F. J. (2016, July 20). Level 3 management skills. Retrieved October 13, 2017, from

https://www.thebalance.com/level-3-management-skills-2275892

Note: a retrieval date was used for this one because this author notes that the creator of

the web page changes articles but retains one access URL.

The IKEA concept: Doing it a different way. (n.d.). Retrieved October 11, 2017, from

http://www.ikea.com/ms/en_US/this-is-ikea/the-ikea-concept/index.html

Other Kinds of Reference Examples:

References – Annual Company Report (taken from the company web site).

Ford Motor Company. (2016). Ford Motor Company: 2016 annual report. Retrieved from

https://corporate.ford.com/microsites/sustainability-report-2016-17/doc/sr16-annual-

report-2016.pdf

References – ATLA Monographs

Davis, J. D. (1894). Genesis and Semitic tradition [EBSCOhost Digital Archives Viewer

version]. Retrieved from ATLA Historical Monographs Collection: Series 2 database.

References – Blog Post and Blog Comment

Lee, C. (2010, November 18). How to cite something you found on a website in APA style [Blog

post]. Retrieved from http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2010/11/how-to-cite-something

http://0-apastylecentral.apa.org.oak.indwes.edu/learn/browse/QG-8
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-you-found-on-a-website-in-apa-style.html

 Note that the title is not in italics.

 You may also see [Weblog post] used as this is what is printed in the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. However since that printing APA has

moved away from that term and are using [Blog post] (American Psychological

Association, 2012).

 If responding to a blog post then the square brackets would be [Blog comment].

 For additional visual and interactive information, view the APA Style CENTRAL link: http://0-apastylecentral.apa.org.oak.indwes.edu/learn/browse/QG-9

References – Business Plan from Business Plans Handbook (Gale Virtual Reference

Library)

 See section, References – Reference Book Article, for additional examples of citing e- reference books.

Greenland, D. (2010). Dog training business. In L. M. Pierce (Ed.), Business plans handbook

(Vol. 17, pp. 55-60). Retrieved from http://www.gale.com

References — CINAHL Evidence-Based Care Sheets

March, P., & Caple, C. (2015, November 6). Spiritual needs of hospitalized patients. Retrieved

from CINAHL Evidence-Based Care Sheets database.

 The Care Sheets are distinctive to the CINAHL database and not available elsewhere. Therefore, they are referenced to the database that they reside in rather than a publisher

URL.

References – Cochrane Library

Holland, A. E., & Hill, C. (2008). Physical training for interstitial lung disease. Cochrane

Database of Systematic Reviews, 2008(4), 1-42.

https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD006322.pub2

 IWU’s subscription to Cochrane Library has a How to Cite link which gives the needed information, but the actual format is not per APA. Use the information per the example

above to create the needed References citation.

References – Course Supplemental

Information systems foundation [Course supplement]. (n.d.). Retrieved from Indiana

Wesleyan University, Brightspace, MKG-350 classroom.

http://0-apastylecentral.apa.org.oak.indwes.edu/learn/browse/QG-9
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Topic 03: Research in psychology. (n.d.). In The field of psychology [Course supplement].

Retrieved from Indiana Wesleyan University, Brightspace, PSY-150 classroom.

 Sometimes a course will provide additional teaching aids that accompany the assigned readings for the course. Often these are provided by the book publisher to enhance and

provide further teaching on a topic. They may be interactive exercises. They do not

include links to streaming media, such as YouTube or Films on Demand or include

articles or books from library or open source locations. Citing those kinds of resources

are covered by that item in other locations in this document, e.g. Films on Demand

media.

 The above gives one example where the entire media was given in the activity and the second example is one where the presentation was divided into multiple topics.

 If there is an obvious author, it would start with that and the date follow the author and then continue with the citation.

 If a date is given, that would replace the n.d.

 The first part of the retrieval statement will not change, but the course number would change, depending on the course.

 When citing the above example in text it would be for a paraphrase (“Topic 03,” n.d.). For a quote (“Topic 03,” n.d., para. 1). If an author was given, then the author(s) names

would be substituted.

References – Court Decisions

Roe et al. v. Wade, 410 U.S.113, (1973).

 Government statutes, federal code, state codes, legal cases, etc., are difficult to cite because they do not follow the pattern of any other kind of APA citation. Instead, they

follow The Bluebook: The Uniform System of Citation (18th ed., 2005). The Bluebook is

the writing style used by the legal community. The APA Blog provides an explanatory

entry as well as links to more blog posts on legal citations,

http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2013/02/introduction-to-apa-style-legal-references.html

References – Company Profiles and Industry Profiles (found in EBSCOHost Business

Source Complete)

 There are probably two correct ways of doing these. The company profiles come from several different sources. Examples are given below.

Company profile: Colgate-Palmolive Company. (2017, August 18). Retrieved from

 Since the first element in the References citation is Company profile, that is what gets cited in text: (Company Profile, 2012, p. #), if it is a direct quote form the document or

(Company Profile, 2012), if it is a paraphrase. Note that in text, you do capitalize

significant words in the References entry.

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Company information: Collegium Pharmaceutical Inc. (2013). Retrieved from

http://www.isareports.com

 An industry report could be done correctly one of two ways as illustrated below.

Health care equipment & supplies in the United States. (2013, July). Retrieved from

 Since the first element in the References citation is Health care, that is what gets cited in text:: (Health Care Equipment, 2013, p. 12) , if it is a direct quote form the document or

(Health Care Equipment, 2013) ), if it is a paraphrase. Note that in text, the significant

words are capitalized.

MarketLine. (2013, July). Health care equipment & supplies in the United States. Retrieved from

 Since the first element in the References citation is MarketLine, that is what gets cited in text:: (MarketLine, 2013, p. 12) , if it is a direct quote form the document or

(MarketLine, 2013) ), if it is a paraphrase. Note that in text, the significant words are

capitalized.

References – Company Form 10-K

Nike, Inc. (2014, May 31). Form 10-K. Retrieved from

http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/320187/000032018714000097/nke

-5312014x10k.htm#s880EAD4C4C08511533B87162ABD1AE47

 These reports are available for any publically traded company. They are available from a public government site of the U.S. Securities Exchange Commission, EDGAR.

References – ERIC Documents

 See References – Archival Documents, for examples of how to cite an ERIC document.

 These include the documents in the ERIC database that have an accession number starting with ED and are generally available from http://eric.ed.gov web site.

References – Films on Demand Streaming Media (Title)

Films Media Group (Producer). (2010). The career portfolio [Streamed video]. Available from

Films on Demand Web database.

http://eric.ed.gov/
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References – Films on Demand Streaming Media (Segment)

Films Media Group (Producer). (2007). Rising costs of prescription drugs [Video file]. In

NewsHour medical ethics and issues anthology. Available from Films on Demand Web

database.

 If you reference several segments of a media title, then the in text citations will all look the same, e.g. (Films Media Group, 2007). To differentiate them, you need to alphabetize

them first in your References list. The first element to change will be the segment title,

(in the example above that would be Rising costs of prescription drugs). Then assign an

a,b,c, etc., for however many you reference. If you reference two segments, and the first

one is titled, Projected healthcare costs. It would be assigned (2007a) and the example

used above would be 2007b. The date with the small letters are used in the References

entry and the in text citations.

 It is also appropriate to cite the actual producer of the media rather than using the streaming media database as the producer. In this case, a citation might look like this:

Griffith, D. W. (Director). (n.d.). Edgar Allen Poe [Video file]. Retrieved from Academic Video

Online: Premium.

References – First Research Industry Reports

Automobile manufacturing: Industry profile. (2011, October 31). Retrieved from First Research

database.

 Since this is proprietary information to this database, it would be appropriate to include the name of the database, too. Generally, for articles, etc., database names are not used.

References – Government Web Site

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015a, February 5). Basic information about

colorectal cancer. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/colorectal

/basic_info/index.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015b). Skin cancer prevention: Progress report

2015. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/skin/pdf

/skincancerpreventionprogressreport.pdf

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U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2015, March 25). Occupational

employment statistics: May 2014 state occupational employment and wage estimates:

Indiana. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes_in.htm#13-0000

 The difference between the first and second examples from the CDC is that one was a web page with information and the second was a PDF document that could be

downloaded as a standalone piece.

 CDC can be used for an in text citation after the first time of spelling it out, but in the References list, a corporate author should be spelled out and the acronym not used. An

example in text citation of the 2nd entry above would be for the first time cited, (Centers

for Disease Control [CDC], 2015b). Any subsequent in text citation would be (CDC,

2015. Note that the a and b were used since in text it would be impossible to differentiate

which source was cited.

 If it is a U.S. government office, start with the largest division and then add the sub office that is under that larger division. Note that U. S. uses the acronym when used with a

government office.

 If using a site with statistics that could change with time, e.g. unemployment rate, include a retrieval date, e.g. Retrieved August 20, 2015, from

http://www.bls.gov/news.release/laus.nr0.htm

 Also see, References — Technical Reports, Research Reports, Corporate Author.

References – Images/Graphics/Photographs

Sleeping crooked [Graphic]. (2011). Retrieved August 20, 2015, from

http://www.funnycatpix.com/_pics/Sleeping_Crooked.htm

 Even if the website is described as a “free clip art” site, you still need to provide an in text and References entry for the image, using a similar format to the above example.

Clipart is no longer a part of the Microsoft Suite. Instead when you want to insert an

image, it immediately takes you to a Bing search engine search. In other words, you are

going outside your software to search on the internet for an image. It, also, needs an in

text citation and References entry. It is located on an external site and created by

someone, so it should be noted per APA.

 It is not unusual for a graphic to be untitled. For example, in searching for the right graphic to use, a student might do an image search for a person sitting at a computer. A

group of images display and one is selected to use in a PowerPoint. There is no title or

date; only the URL is given where the image originally is stored. This might be an

appropriate way to reference it in the References list:

Untitled image of a man at a computer [Graphic]. (n.d.). Retrieved April 9, 2015, from

http://www.quia.com/files/quia/users/rcoveney/happy_man_at_computer.jpg

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References – Lecture from a Class

 Two examples are given depending on whether the source was a public site, from the course management system or from a face to face situation where the lecture was

distributed. The first one should have a References entry per the first example below. For

the latter two sources, they would be considered Personal Communication and only cited

in text, not in the References list. See Personal Communication.

 If you are referencing your own personal notes of a lecture then for that situation it would be referenced as personal communication since your own notes are only available to you.

See Personal Communication. The following examples are fictitious sources.

McKenzie, L. M. (2012). The role of women in World War II [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved

from http://www.historyprofessor.com

An in text citation only is used, such as this (L. M. McKenzie, personal communication,

September 7, 2012).

References – Legislation, Statutes and Regulations

Protection and Affordable Care Act; HHS Notice of Benefit and Payment Parameters for 2012,

78 Fed. Reg. 15410 (March 11, 2013) (to be codified at 45 C.F.R. pts. 153, 155,156, 157,

& 158).

 Government statutes, federal code, state codes, legal cases, etc., are difficult to cite because they do not follow the pattern of any other kind of APA citation. Instead, they

follow The Bluebook: The Uniform System of Citation (18th ed., 2005). The Bluebook is

the writing style used by the legal community. The APA Blog provides an explanatory

entry as well as links to more blog posts on legal citations,

http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2013/02/introduction-to-apa-style-legal-references.html

References – Motion Picture

Jones, A. A. (Producer), & Malone, F. (Director). (1997). Movie of the year for 1997 [Motion

picture]. United States: Paramount.

References – Music Recording

Sills, B. (2004). Son vergin vezzosa. On The great recordings [CD]. Universal City, CA:

Universal Classics Group.

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References – Podcast

Larson, K. (Producer). (2009, December 11). Nursing in the best of times [Audio podcast].

Retrieved from http://ihets.interactive.org/larson

References — PowerPoint Slides

Indiana Wesleyan University, Off Campus Library Services. (2009). Basic library instruction:

Associates [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://www.indwes.edu/ocls

/Database/General/Intro_to_Research.pdf

 Note that when a URL needs more than one line, break the URL before any punctuation, e.g. / or – or period. As the example above shows, the slash starts the 2nd line.

References – Software

Microsoft Corporation. (2013). Word 2013 [Computer software]. Redmond, WA: Author.

References – Standard & Poor’s NetAdvantage

 There are several different kinds of sources available in S & P’s NetAdvantage so this example may not exactly match up with what you are citing. Pay close attention to the

title, date, if it has an author, but the retrieval information would be the same.

Saftlas, H. (2012, May 31). Industry surveys: Healthcare: Pharmaceuticals. Standard & Poor’s.

Retrieved from Standard & Poor’s NetAdvantage database.

References – Student Handbook (IWU publication)

Indiana Wesleyan University, School of Nursing, Division of Post-Licensure Nursing. (2014-

2015). Student handbook. Available from Indiana Wesleyan University Portal, Academic

Sites, RNBS Student Resources.

 Available from Indiana Wesleyan University Portal, Academic Sites, RNBS Student Resources, is used because the IWU portal is a secure site that is only available to the

IWU community. Giving an actual URL would not be accessible for anyone outside of

this community.

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References – Student Paper

Bitner, A., Freeborn, M., & Lamar, A. (2011). Organizational culture among executives at Eli

Lilly. Unpublished manuscript, College of Adult & Professional Studies, Indiana

Wesleyan University, Marion, IN.

 Note: There might be occasion to cite a student paper from a previous class. Although this is not a recommended practice, it should be cited per above. Self-plagiarism is

discouraged because the majority of the new document should be original research and

text.

References – Syllabus

Indiana Wesleyan University. (2012, February 19). BUS150: Personal finance: Syllabus.

Retrieved from Indiana Wesleyan University, Brightspace, BUS-150 classroom.

Watson, D., & Brody, S. (n.d.). Syllabus: PSY-150: General psychology. Retrieved from Indiana

Wesleyan University, Brightspace, PSY-150 classroom.

References – Television Show, One Time Occurrence

Moses, T. W., Rankin, B. T. (Writers), & Rumley, Z. (Director). (2009, December 31). Top ten

stories of 2009 [Television series episode]. In F. Finigan (Executive producer), 20/20.

New York, NY: ABC News.

References – TREN document (Theological Research Exchange Network).

Anderson, J. W. (2006). A study of the biblical basis for tithing [PDF format]. Retrieved from

http://www.tren.com

Sparks, C. G. (2012). Case studies of selected churches utilizing expository preaching to reach

unchurched suburban postmoderns [PDF format]. Retrieved from http://www.tren.com

 TREN is a database of dissertations and theses prepared for graduate theological schools.

 IWU provides the full text of these documents from the library catalog.

 These are considered electronic books.

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References – University Catalog

Indiana Wesleyan University. (2014-2015). University catalog: 2014-2015 catalog. Retrieved

from http://indwes.smartcatalogiq.com/en/2014-2015/Catalog

Indiana Wesleyan University. (2014-2015). Honesty, cheating, plagiarism, and forgery. In

University catalog: 2014-2015. Retrieved from

http://indwes.smartcatalogiq.com/en/2014-2015/Catalog

 A new catalog is electronically published each year. Generally, students retain the catalog that they began with in their first course of their degree program. So, for example, if a

student began a degree program in September of 2014, they would continue to use the

2014-2015 edition of the catalog even though in the fall of 2015 a new catalog was

published. Displaying the date as a part of the title is important.

References – UpToDate™ database

Buckbinder, R. (2017, May 5). Plantar fasciitis. In M. R. Curtis (Ed.), UpToDate. Retrieved May

22, 2017, from http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html

 Use the format for a chapter in an online book. (This is the suggested format from the UpToDate database producers.)

 Since this is constantly updated information, it is best to use a retrieval date and actual date of the most recent revision.

 Many of the entries in UpToDate have a Deputy Editor and Section Editors. Only use the Deputy Editor.

 UpToDate also provides drug information that comes from Lexicomp™. A drug entry might be cited as follows:

Pirfenidone: Drug information. (2017). UpToDate. Retrieved from

http;//www.uptodate.com/home/index.html

 The in text citation would be: (“Pirfenidone,” 2017). If it was quoted, then a paragraph number or section header would be added: (“Pirfenidone,” 2017, Section adverse

reactions).

References – Video

Rosell, R. (Writer), McDermott-Rosell, P., & Rosell, R. (Producers). (2005). Compliance is just

the beginning: 3 steps to ethical decisions [DVD]. Bellevue, WA: Quality Media

Resources.

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References – YouTube Videos

Jones, B., & Hurley, G. (2012, September 10). Purdue OWL: APA formatting: Reference list

basics [Video file]. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/HpAOi8-WUY4

 Some users in YouTube, go by a pseudonym, instead of their real name, Mr. Beck’s World, UnboringLearning, or Alex A. Use the author’s real name and their pseudonym

in square brackets right after the name. If only a pseudonym is used then it is used as the

author.

PowerPoint™ Presentations and APA

Just as you cite and provide References for a paper it is also important to provide in text citations

and References for a PowerPoint™ presentation. This includes images that are used. There are 2

commonly accepted practices for citing and you may want to check with your instructors to see if

they have a preference.

 One way provides an in text citation on each slide just as you would do for a paper. If only one source is cited per slide, the in text citation can be positioned at the bottom of

the slide. If more than one source is cited per slide, then it would be best to place the in

text citation with the content. Then the last slide in the presentation would be the

References list, just as you would for a paper. Both of these can be done in a small font,

e.g. 12 or 14 point font as they do not necessarily need to be read in a large presentation

room, but they do show that you are giving credit for content not original to you.

 The second way provides for the full References entry at the bottom of the slide where that content is shown. Again, it can be in a small font size so that it does not consume the

slide.

 Probably of these two methods, the first is the least obtrusive to the flow of your actual presentation.

 Note about clipart: In pre-2013 versions of Microsoft Office, clipart came as a part of the software. In their 2013 and subsequent versions going to the Insert option there is the

option to insert from saved pictures on your local system or finding online pictures. The

latter initiates a Bing search for images. These, too, need to be cited per any other images

that might be used.

APA Style CENTRAL™

APA Style CENTRAL™ is a system created by the same people that write APA. Off Campus

Library Services pays for subscription to this resource. It has several areas:

 Learn – Quick Guides, Tutorials, References examples, paper examples, Tables and Figures examples are all available in this area.

 Research – Access to My References, search in APA dictionaries, use their guide to research, etc.

 Write – Allows the user to create, save, and continue editing papers. This area requires an additional username/password, created by the user and only available to the user as it

is the personal space of the user.

 Publish – Used if the intention is to publish journal articles and submit them for publication.

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OCLS highly recommends the use of APA Style CENTRAL as it takes the stress out of the APA

formatting both for the paper as a whole and the individual citations. Although the user still has

to know when to cite correctly, it will create the correct format for the citations.

Formatting Your Paper in Word

General Paper Formatting

Use the margins function (in Word 2010 and higher this is under Page Layout) and verify that

the margins are set at one inch on all four sides. This is the default for Word 2010 and

subsequent versions.

Set your paper for double spacing. This is found on the Home ribbon in the Paragraph area.

Later versions of Word by default add a little extra white space between paragraphs. This throws

off a true double spaced appearance. To alleviate this default you need to modify some settings

each time you start a new paper (you can set this as the default setting for all Word documents).

Click on the arrow for the Paragraph section on the Home ribbon.

In the Spacing area, make sure there is a check mark next to: Don’t add space between

paragraphs of the same style. Also be sure that the number for Before: and After: are both set as

0.

This will take care of that default setting for your paper. You will have to make that change each

time you start a new paper or set that as the default setting for all Word documents.

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Setting up the Running Head

APA requires a running head on every page of the paper. The Title page or first page of the

paper has a different running head from the remainder of the paper. This takes some extra

formatting in your word processing program.

Page one:

 On the left hand margin it should be: Running head: TITLE OF YOUR PAPER

 On the same line, but on the right hand margin, should be the page number, 1. Page two and all subsequent pages:

 On the left hand margin type the following: TITLE OF YOUR PAPER

 On the same line, but on the right margin, should be the page number 2.

Running Head in Word 2010 and subsequent versions

 Starting at the top of page 1, go to the Insert ribbon.

 Select Header, Edit Header.

 Place a check mark beside: Different First Page.

 Enter the phrase, Running head: TITLE OF THE PAPER, on the left margin. o The capitalized title words should not be more than 50 characters, including

spaces.

o The title does not have to exactly match your main title, but should convey the exact same concept. It may just as easy to use the first part of your full title.

 Tab to the right margin, click on the Page Number icon.

 Select Current Position; Simple, Plain Number.

 Type number 1.

 Close the Header and Footer ribbon.

 Type the remainder of the information for the title page.

 Enter a Page Break to move to the 2nd page.

 Go the Insert ribbon.

 Select Header, Edit Header.

 Enter just the title of your paper in all capitals.

 Repeat the steps for inserting the page number. Page 2 should appear, you will not have to type it, after clicking on Page Number, Current Position, Simple, Plain Number.

Counting the Characters in the Running Head

There should be no more than 50 characters in the title words of the running head (this does not

include the words, Running head). It is tedious to try to count those one by one on your computer

screen. You can do that easily through your word processor.

 Double click on white space in the header area.

 Highlight the capitalized title words with your mouse.

 Go to the bottom left hand corner and click on Words (it may say the actual number of words).

APA 6E GUIDE 40

Ver. 2017.10.20

 A box will pop up that gives a lot of information about your document. Pay attention to the one for Characters (with spaces). If the number is less than 50, then you do not need

to drop any words. If it is more than 50, drop words from the end of the title or make sure

that it conveys the exact meaning of your full title.

 This is a good step to know about for counting total words in your document, too.

Formatting Tables

Here are some tips for deciding to use a table:

 Tables can visually display numerical values or textual information.

 They are neatly arranged in columns and rows.

 Anything else (no rows or columns) is considered a figure.

 Do not over use tables. Most times information is better communicated in text rather than in a table.

 For a class assignment, fair use will allow the use of a table from another source whether presented as is or adapted. However, attribution must be given to the original source with

the table. If correctly cited with the table, and that source is not cited in the body text of

the paper, no entry is needed in the References list. If your paper will be published, i.e.

IWU library catalog or ProQuest Dissertations & Theses, you must obtain copyright

permission to reproduce the table.

Formatting the table:

 Use 12 pt., New Times Roman for most tables. If needed you can go as small as 10 pt. font, but no smaller. Tables can be single spaced but if there is more clarity with

additional white space it is preferred to use double spacing.

APA 6E GUIDE 41

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 As much as possible, keep the table on one page.

 It can be presented in the paper in either landscape or portrait.

 Every row/column must have a label.

 Use a light weight line and only use horizontal lines, no vertical lines.

 The table number is in regular font, using numerals for numbering.

 The table title is in italics with all significant words greater than 3 letters capitalized. It is above the table.

 A table may have 3 kinds of notes underneath. o A general note explains any information that relates to the table as a whole. This

is where information would be included attributing the information in the table to

another source. A general note starts with the word, Note and it is in italics,

followed by a period.

o A specific note gives explanatory information for just one column, row or cell of the table. Use a superscript lower case letter.

o A probability note helps to explain when probability markings are used in a table, e.g. asterisks or other symbols.

 Tables are numbered sequentially as they are discussed in the text, e.g. Table 1; Table 2, etc.

 A table should be referred to in the text of the paper. An example of this might be: Table 3 explains the gender breakdown of the research group. Never include a table (or figure)

that is not mentioned in the body text.

 Using the Insert ribbon of the word processor, tables can easily be inserted into a paper. However, the formatting of the generic table is not per APA guidelines. You will have to

edit the some of the lines and erase the vertical lines to get it to match the example below.

Here is an example of a correctly formatted table.

Table 8

Gender of Leader

Frequency Percent VP CP

Valid male 84 69.4 69.4 69.4

female 37 30.6 30.6 100.0

Total 121 100.0 100.0

Note. VP stands for Valid Percentage and CP stands for Cumulative Percentage.

 APA Style CENTRAL has two visual, interactive presentations illustrating information about Tables. They are found in the Quick Guides: Table Components: http://0-

apastylecentral.apa.org.oak.indwes.edu/learn/browse/QG-44 and Table Guidelines: http://0-

apastylecentral.apa.org.oak.indwes.edu/learn/browse/QG-45

Formatting Figures

Tips for deciding to include a figure:

 Includes anything that does not display well in a table.

http://0-apastylecentral.apa.org.oak.indwes.edu/learn/browse/QG-44
http://0-apastylecentral.apa.org.oak.indwes.edu/learn/browse/QG-44
http://0-apastylecentral.apa.org.oak.indwes.edu/learn/browse/QG-45
http://0-apastylecentral.apa.org.oak.indwes.edu/learn/browse/QG-45
APA 6E GUIDE 42

Ver. 2017.10.20

 Should add value to the paper.

 May be displayed more accurately and more visually appealing than a table.

 Create them in such a way that they will be understood without having to read the text of the paper.

 Conveys essential facts.

 Should be visually appealing in size and readability.

 For a class assignment, fair use will allow the use of a figure from another source whether presented as is or adapted. However, attribution must be given to the original

source with the figure. If correctly cited with the figure, and that source is not cited in the

body text of the paper, no entry is needed in the References list. If your paper will be

published, i.e. IWU library catalog or ProQuest Dissertations & Theses, you must obtain

copyright permission to reproduce any figure.

Formatting the figure:

 Lines should be clear and sharp.

 Typeface is simple and legible (be consistent with the rest of the paper).

 Make sure the graphic, photograph, chart, graph, etc., is large enough to be understood.

 The figure number and the caption go underneath the figure.

 The figure number is in italics and numerals are used sequentially, e.g. Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3.

 The figure caption is in regular font, using sentence formatting.

 Figures need to be referred to in the body of the paper. Figure 3 shows the perception of laissez faire leadership in the research group.

Here is an example of a correctly formatted figure and one requiring attribution:

Figure 3. Laissez-faire leadership style.

APA 6E GUIDE 43

Ver. 2017.10.20

Note. The histogram illustrates the perception of laissez-faire leadership style displayed in the

two leader groups.

Figure 4. Williams Prayer Chapel on the campus of Indiana Wesleyan University. Copyright

2013 by J. L. Kind.

• There are two Quick Guides on Figure Components and Figure Guidelines available on the

APA Style CENTRAL site: Figure Components:

http://0-apastylecentral.apa.org.oak.indwes.edu/learn/browse/QG-42

• Figure Guidelines: http://0-apastylecentral.apa.org.oak.indwes.edu/learn/browse/QG-43

Removing Hyperlinks for URLs

Web addresses or URL’s should either consistently display as hyperlinked or as not hyperlinked.

They should all be same throughout the paper. Choosing not to hyperlink is easily

accomplished. Word processing programs want to automatically hyperlink these, turning them

blue with an underline. Hyperlinks are removed as follows.

 Place the mouse over the hyperlink.

 Right click.

http://0-apastylecentral.apa.org.oak.indwes.edu/learn/browse/QG-42
http://0-apastylecentral.apa.org.oak.indwes.edu/learn/browse/QG-43
APA 6E GUIDE 44

Ver. 2017.10.20

 Click on: Remove hyperlink.

Reference List Creation for WORD 2010 and all subsequent versions

A simple way to create your references is to use the ruler and

drag the bottom part of the two arrows to the right one-half

inch. This will create the hanging part of the References entry.

Of course, you will need to be sure that it is set on double

spacing. Now, when you type, the lines will word wrap and

any 2nd or subsequent line will go to the hanging indent

marker. When you do an Enter to start a new entry, the cursor

will return to the left hand margin. Your typing should look

like the Autry example in the illustration on the right. If the

sources are already typed, simply highlight the References and

move the arrow over and again, make sure all lines are double

spaced.

The same thing can be accomplished by going to the

Paragraph section of your Word toolbar, clicking on the small

arrow in the bottom right hand corner. In the window that pops

up, go the Special: area and use the drop down to select,

Hanging. Click OK. Again, if your sources are already typed

in, highlight all of them first so you can apply the new settings.

Getting Help with APA

Only a few examples can be demonstrated here. Here are some further resources and helps for

understanding APA:

Sources to use for further APA Help

American Psychological Association. (2009-2012). APA style [Web log]. Retrieved from

http://www.blog.apastyle.org

APA 6E GUIDE 45

Ver. 2017.10.20

American Psychological Association. (2010a). Concise rules of APA style (6th ed.). Washington,

D.C.: Author.

American Psychological Association. (2010b). Publication manual of the American

Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, D.C.: Author.

American Psychological Association. (2012). APA style guide to electronic references. Retrieved

from http://www.apastyle.org/products/index.aspx**

American Psychological Association. (2016). APA Style CENTRAL [Software]. Retrieved from

http://www.apastylecentral.org

Off Campus Library Services. (n.d.). APA style. Available at http://www2.indwes.edu/

/style_guide.html

Off Campus Library Services. Available at http://www2.indwes.edu/forms/request.aspx or

800.521.1848.

**This document can be requested from OCLS for any IWU student/faculty.

APA Research Paper Example: Sample Formatting With APA Writing Helps

Here are some examples of papers done, using APA 6th edition:

 http://www.apastyle.org/manual/related/sample-experiment-paper-1.pdf (Provided by the American Psychological Association on their APA writing style site.)

 https://owl.english.purdue.edu/media/pdf/20090212013008_560.pdf (Provided by OWL, Purdue Online Writing Lab.)

 The next eight pages demonstrate an example of a Title Page, text pages and References

list for a fictional APA paper, titled APA Research Paper Example: Sample Formatting

With APA Writing Helps

Still have questions? Do not see your source covered here? Call: 800.521.1848 or use our email

form: http://www2.indwes.edu/forms/request.aspx.

http://www.apastyle.org/manual/related/sample-experiment-paper-1.pdf
https://owl.english.purdue.edu/media/pdf/20090212013008_560.pdf
http://www2.indwes.edu/forms/request.aspx
Running head: APA RESEARCH PAPER 1

APA Research Paper Example: Sample Formatting With APA Writing Helps

FirstName LastName

Indiana Wesleyan University

Note: The margins were altered for this sample to allow room for the call out boxes.

Margins should be 1 inch all around the page. Fonts should be 12-point, standard font

with serifs such as Times New Roman. All lines should be double spaced. Only use left side

justification. Additionally, your program may require the placement of a plagiarism

statement. This is not part of APA but may be required. Consult your instructors for

correct placement and wording.

The phrase, Running head, is not capitalized, but

the paper title is all capitalized.

Running head + TITLE should be 50 spaces or

less. If you need to shorten the title, shorten it

from the end, not the beginning of your title. See

Formatting Your Paper: Counting the Characters

in the Running Head.

Additionally, your instructor may ask

for more identification information,

such as, instructor’s name, course,

date, plagiarism statement. Check

with your instructor.

This personal information

should be positioned in

the upper ½ of the page.

A good guideline is to

space down about 2 1/2-3

inches.

Note that this title would

be too long to include all

in the running head. Only

the first part is used.

APA RESEARCH PAPER 2

Ver. 2017.10.20

APA Research Paper Example: Sample Formatting With APA Writing Helps

The first page of text will be numbered page two, and so on. It and all subsequent pages

will include the running head in the upper left side. This header can be shortened but it must be

shortened from the end of the title not the beginning. The page number is on the same line, but

on the right hand margin. When you finish typing the text of your paper then use a page break in

your word processing program so that your References list starts on a new page. The page break

will keep the References from “traveling” down the page should you need to go back and insert a

significant portion within the body of your paper.

Use an indentation (5-7 spaces) for new paragraphs and space two times between any end

of sentence punctuation and the beginning of a new sentence. Try to include a minimum of three

sentences per paragraph but even five to seven is a better target number.

In this paragraph both quoted in text citations and paraphrased in text citations will be

demonstrated. It does not matter whether you quote directly or reword a concept into your own

wording, both examples require an in text citation. Every sentence whether quoted or paraphrase

needs an in text citation. This helps the reader to understand what is original to you and what is

from another source. In the case of a quote, use quotations marks around the quoted material.

Parris and Peachey (2013) contended that “leadership is one of the most comprehensively

researched social processes in the behavioral sciences” (p. 377). Note that the punctuation for

the quote is outside the parenthetical phrase at the end. That phrase is considered part of the

sentence. By studying the leaders of an organization one can also determine the success of the

organization (Parris & Peachey, 2013). This might be an example of citing a paraphrased section

from a source. Sometimes a source may not have an author. In the example from the References

you would cite like this. “Leaders have a responsibility towards society and those who are

Note that on page 2, the words, Running head,are dropped and

just the title in all caps is used for the remainder of the paper.

This requires special formatting. See Formatting Your Paper:

Body of Paper earlier in this document.

Repeat full

title from

title page on

first page of

the body of

the paper.

Note

combination

upper/lower

case.

APA RESEARCH PAPER 3

Ver. 2017.10.20

disadvantaged” (“Servant Leadership,” n.d., para. 1). The following paragraph demonstrates

multiple sentences from another source to show how each sentence needs an in text citation. All

the sentences were paraphrased from the source by Bass and Bass.

Bass and Bass (2008) include a short overview of servant leadership. The leadership

model is attributed to R. Greenleaf and developed from his own experience as an executive in the

business world (Bass & Bass, 2008). Bass and Bass (2008) explained that Greenleaf felt that a

person’s ego could be a detriment to an organization’s success and instead the leader need to

model a following behavior. Bass and Bass continued by saying that the greatest achievement of

the leader was to consider first the needs of the followers. Although this is a known model of

leadership in the business world it emulates the teachings of Christ.

Note that in the previous paragraph when the in text citation was included in the written

text that the first time a full citation is included but if that same format is used subsequently that

the date can be omitted. However, if the in text citation is provided at the end of the sentence in

parentheses then the full information should be give every time. If another source were

interjected in the middle of the paragraph than the next time Bass and Bass are cited the full

information should be included. Each paragraph stands alone. There is no carry over from

previous paragraphs.

If the quote is longer than 40 or more words then use an indented block quote without

quotation marks. The indented block is still double spaced and an author, date and page number

(if available) is still referenced. For the long block quote, the punctuation at the end comes at the

end of the sentence and then the parenthetical information for the source. Here is an example of

a long quotation as shown by Umlas (2013):

APA RESEARCH PAPER 4

Ver. 2017.10.20

Servant Leadership, which started in the 1960s and is still practiced by such corporate

giants as Southwest Airlines, Marriott International, Starbucks and many others, made

some people feel put off by the concept of having a leader serve his or her followers. But

the bottom line results and employee engagement that was created eased their discomfort.

(p. 18)

Signal words are a good introduction for text that you are quoting or paraphrasing. Table

1 provides a list of possible introductory words to use. You can probably think of even more.

Table 1:

Signal Words That Help Introduce Quotes or Paraphrases

Acknowledged Believed Emphasized Proposed

Added Claimed Explained Reported

Admitted Commented Found Revealed

Advised Conceded Maintained Said

Agreed Concluded Noted Showed

Argued Considered Observed Speculated

Asked Contended Pointed out Suggested

Asserted Described Predicted Wrote

Adapted from Prentice Hall Reference Guide (7th ed.), by M. Harris, 2008, p. 400.

When incorporating lists in your writing, the preferred methods are as follows. The first way

is if the list is made up of short phrases. A good essay includes (a) a thesis statement, (b) an

introduction, (c) at least three to four paragraphs of more than three sentences and (d) a

conclusion. If this list includes sentences, then you would show write it another way. Boone and

Makhani (2012/2013) noted some of the attributes of a good leader as:

APA RESEARCH PAPER 5

Ver. 2017.10.20

1. The leader desires to see his employees succeed. [Note if there was a second line it is

flush left.]

2. The leader will set the vision for the employees.

If your paper contains a lot of numbers or statistics and using these methods could prove more

confusing, then bullets can be used. Use the standard circle or square bullets, not decorative

shapes or colors for the bullets.

Please keep in mind that this “sample paper” does not follow the APA rule that every in

text citation should have a corresponding entry in the References list and vice versa where every

entry in the References list should be cited in the body of the paper. The following References

list is provided to give you actual examples of some of the more commonly used kinds of

sources and to show the hanging indent formatting and alphabetizing for the References.

APA RESEARCH PAPER 6

Ver. 2017.10.20

References

Akkermans, H. J. L., Isaksen, S. G., & Isaksen, E. J. (2008). Leadership for innovation: A global

climate survey: A CRU technical report. Retrieved from

http://www.cpsb.com/research/articles/featured-articles/Global-Climate-Survey

-Technical-Report.pdf

Autry, J. A. (2001). The servant leader: How to build a creative team, develop great morale, and

improve bottom-line performance. Roseville, CA: Prima.

Bass, B. M., & Bass, R. (2008). The Bass handbook of leadership: Theory, research, &

managerial applications. New York, NY: Free Press.

Boone, L. W., & Makhani, S. (2012/2013). Five necessary attitudes of a servant leader. Review

of Business, 33(1), 83–96. Retrieved from http://www.stjohns.edu/

Centennial to become home for Greenleaf Center. (2005, June 6). Indianapolis Business Journal,

26(13), 13A. Retrieved from http://www.ibj.com

Center for Servant Leadership at the Pastoral Institute (Producer). (2000). Servant leadership: At

the best companies to work for in America [Videotape]. Indianapolis, IN: Greenleaf

Center for Servant-Leadership.

Columbus State University. (n.d.). Definition of servant leadership. Retrieved August 18, 2017,

from http://servant.colstate.edu/

Fernando, J., Grisaffe, D. B., Chonko, L. B., & Roberts, J. A. (2009). Examining the impact of

servant leadership on salesperson’s turnover intention. Journal of Personal Selling &

Sales Management, 29(4), 351-365. https://doi.org/10.2753/PSS0885-3134290404

Greenleaf Center for Servant-Leadership. (2002). What is servant-leadership? Retrieved August

18, 2015, from http://www.greenleaf.org/whatissl/

Greenleaf, R. K. (1996a). On becoming a servant-leader. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Standalone Website, corporate

author, no date. (Not a technical

report)

Website, group or corporate author;

not technical report..

Book, with

author

Video tape. The same format would

apply for a CD, DVD, etc.

Article with DOI#, found

through CrossRef.

Note that the

hyperlink

was removed.

No author, news magazine. Publisher

web site. In text citation would be:

(“Centennial to Become,” 2005).

Website,

technical

report. (Note

title is

italicized).

APA RESEARCH PAPER 7

Ver. 2017.10.20

Greenleaf, R. K. (1996b). Seeker and servant: Reflections on religious leadership. San

Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Haden, J. (2012, August 1). Best reason to start a business? God asked. Inc. Retrieved from

http://www.inc.com/jeff-haden/can-god-call-you-to-start-a-business.html

Hunter, J. C. (2004). World’s most powerful leadership principle: How to become a servant

leader. New York, NY: Crown Business. Retrieved from

http://www.proquest.com/products-services/ebooks/ebooks-main.html

Kiechel, W., III. (1992, May 4). The leader as servant. Fortune, 125(9), 121-122.

Lancaster, H. (1994, November 1). Managing your career. Wall Street Journal, p. B1. Retrieved

from http://www.wsj.com

Parris, D., & Peachey, J. (2013). A systematic literature review of servant leadership theory in

organizational contexts. Journal of Business Ethics, 113(3), 377-393.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-012-1322-6

Rauch, K. E. (2007). Servant leadership and team effectiveness (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved

from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3320955)

Rosenberg, J. M. (1992). Leadership continuum. In Dictionary of business and management (p.

192). Chicago, IL: Wiley.

Sailhammer, J. H. (2008). Genesis. In T. Longman III & R. Hess (Eds.). The expositor’s Bible

commentary: Genesis-Leviticus (Vol. 1, Rev. ed., pp. 21-331). Grand Rapids,

MI: Zondervan.

Servant leadership. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://changingminds.org/disciplines

/leadership/styles/servant_leadership.htm

Sipe, J. W., & Frick, D. M. (2009). Seven pillars of servant leadership: Practicing the wisdom of

leading by serving. New York, NY: Paulist.

Article from

magazine;

paper copy.

Online newspaper article.

Reference book article

Dissertation from online

database.

Book with 2 authors. Note that the authors are not

alphabetized in the citation.

Article/chapter in a larger vol. and in

an edited set.

E-book from

EbookCentral,

not downloaded.

If you have 2 or more sources, with same author and same date, alphabetize

them by the title and use small alphabet letters to differentiate. These are

used for the in text citation, too, i.e. (Greenleaf, 1996b, p. 298).

Magazine article, freely

available on the internet;

no DOI..

APA RESEARCH PAPER 8

Ver. 2017.10.20

Spears, L. (1996). Reflections on Robert K. Greenleaf and servant leadership. Leadership and

Organizational Development Journal, 17(7), 33-35.

https://doi.org/10.1108/01437739610148367

Tsao, A. (2004, January 28). The two faces of Wal-Mart. BusinessWeek online. Retrieved from

http://www.businessweek.com/

Umlas, J. W. (2013). Grateful leadership: Using the power of acknowledgement to engage all

your people and achieve superior results. Canadian Manager, 38(2), 18-20. Retrieved

from http://www.cim.ca/

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families,

Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation. (2014, January). Putting the pieces

together: A program logic model for coaching in Head Start (Report # 2014-06).

Retrieved from for http://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/opre/a_logic_model

_for_coaching_in_head_start_from_the_descriptive_study_of.pdf

Note: Some of the above are fictitious citations.

Article in an internet only

magazine.

Article from online

database with a DOI#,

new format

Technical report;

government

document.

Writing Your Paper
Getting Started
Creating an Outline
Formatting Your Paper
General Format
Title Page
Abstract
Body of the Paper
References Page
Tables, Figures, Appendices
Template for an APA Paper
APA Video Helps
Citing Sources in Text
Plagiarism
In Text Citations
Secondary Sources
Lists or Seriation
Headings
Level 3 — Indented, boldface, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. Sentence starts immediately after the period.
Level 4 — Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase ending with a period. Start paragraph with normal double-spacing, in line with heading.
Level 5 — Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. Start first paragraph in line with heading.
Credibility in Using Sources, e.g. Wikipedia
Sources Needing Only an In Text Citation
Biblical Entries or Classical Works
Personal Communication
Numbers in APA
Creating the References
Using the Cite Feature in the Library Databases
General Formatting Tips for APA References Citations
Most Commonly Used References
References – Archival Documents
References – Books
References—Book Chapter from a Collection of Works by Various Authors
References – Book Review
References – E-books
References – Courseware E-Textbook
References – Kindle Books
References – Reference Book Article, No Author or Editor
References – Brochure
References — Theses and/or Dissertations
References – Newspaper Article (Print)
References – Online Newspaper Article
References – Newsletter Article, no author
References – Magazine Articles
References – Journal/Periodical Articles
References – Journal/Periodical Articles With a DOI
References – Journal/Periodical Articles Without a DOI.
References – In Press Article
References — Technical Reports, Research Reports, Non Newspaper or Journal Articles
References — Technical Reports, Research Reports, Corporate Author
References — Web Pages
Other Kinds of Reference Examples:
References – Annual Company Report (taken from the company web site).
References – ATLA Monographs
References – Blog Post and Blog Comment
References – Business Plan from Business Plans Handbook (Gale Virtual Reference Library)
References — CINAHL Evidence-Based Care Sheets
References – Cochrane Library
References – Course Supplemental
References – Court Decisions
References – Company Profiles and Industry Profiles (found in EBSCOHost Business Source Complete)
References – Company Form 10-K
References – ERIC Documents
References – Films on Demand Streaming Media (Title)
References – Films on Demand Streaming Media (Segment)
References – First Research Industry Reports
References – Government Web Site
References – Images/Graphics/Photographs
References – Lecture from a Class
References – Legislation, Statutes and Regulations
References – Motion Picture
References – Music Recording
References – Podcast
References — PowerPoint Slides
References – Software
References – Standard & Poor’s NetAdvantage
References – Student Handbook (IWU publication)
References – Student Paper
References – Syllabus
References – Television Show, One Time Occurrence
References – TREN document (Theological Research Exchange Network).
References – University Catalog
References – UpToDate™ database
References – Video
References – YouTube Videos
PowerPoint™ Presentations and APA
APA Style CENTRAL™
Formatting Your Paper in Word
General Paper Formatting
Setting up the Running Head
Running Head in Word 2010 and subsequent versions
Counting the Characters in the Running Head
Formatting Tables
Formatting Figures
Removing Hyperlinks for URLs
Reference List Creation for WORD 2010 and all subsequent versions
Getting Help with APA
APA Research Paper Example: Sample Formatting With APA Writing Helps

 
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