Nursing Ch 13

Read Chapter 13

You have to create an E-Poster on what you see as the future of nursing practice and the role of nursing in the emerging health-care environment. You need to predict the future based on present evidence.

The E-Poster needs to include the following:

1. Introduction

2. Statement of the issue

3. Evidence supporting the issue

4. Prediction of the future role of the nurse

5. Conclusion

6. References: minimum of three references from peer-reviewed nursing journals (encourage the use of international journals). Articles need to be within the last 3 years unless historical.
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Evolution of Nursing as a Profession

Chapter 13


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Early Years

Nursing occurred in the home
Origin of hospitals
Physician-directed care
Differences in quality care
Religious orders vs. city/community based institutions

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Nursing Defined

Florence Nightingale
Virginia Henderson
Martha Rogers

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Modern Nursing Role

Nurses are viewed as collaborative members of the health-care team.
Nursing has emerged as a strong profession of its own.
Nurses have a wide range of responsibilities and obligations.
Recent polls demonstrate that nurses are considered the most trusted group of professionals.

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Early Nurse Leaders

Florence Nightingale
Lillian Wald
Margaret Sanger
Mary Eliza Mahoney

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Modern Nurse Leaders

Mildred Montag
Associate degree nursing programs
Shift of nursing education from hospital-based environments to institutions of higher learning
Virginia Henderson
“Modern Florence Nightingale”
Advocated for autonomy of nursing practice
Proponent of publicly financed universally accessible health care

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21st Century

Linda Aiken
Research on nurse-patient ratios and patient safety
Development of MAGNET hospitals
Beverly Malone
Deputy Assistant Secretary for Health
Chief Executive Officer of the NLN
Tim Porter-O’Grady
Senior Partner of Tim Porter-O’Grady Associates
Contributed to changes in practice and education
Focus on health systems innovation

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Political Influences

Nursing advances occurred during the time of social upheaval and change.
Strengthening of public health nursing services
Amendments to the Social Security Act that created Medicare and Medicaid
Development of health insurance companies

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Political Influences (cont’d)

Civil Rights Act
Guaranteed equal treatment for all individuals
Prohibited gender discrimination in the workplace
Law lacked enforcement
Feminist Movement
National Organization of Women
Development of nursing specialty disciplines

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Nursing in Times of War

Wars created situations facilitating changes in nursing practice.
Increase in the need for nurses
Enhanced public awareness of nursing’s role within society
Korean War changed nursing practice.
Nurses on the front line
Nurses worked in mobile hospital units.

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Vietnam War

Nurses were pushed beyond boundaries.
They functioned in mobile hospital units.
They worked without direct supervision of physicians.
They performed emergency procedures.
This created feelings of restriction and unrest when they returned home and had to practice under limitations.

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Technology permitted the wide use of life support systems.
Nurses face ethical dilemmas involving the use of technology.
Nurses are active in formulating policies that address ethical issues.
There is renewed interest and support for Hospice nursing.

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Nursing and the Early 21st Century

Nurses and the World Trade Center disaster
Raised multiple questions regarding nursing’s ability to react and respond to major disasters
Hurricane Katrina
Damages to hospitals
Practicing under unfamiliar and unusual situations
Increased disaster preparedness for nurses

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Nursing and Health-Care Reform

Nightingale and Wald both demonstrated nursing’s commitment to health-care reform.
Interventions and outcomes research
School nursing
Health promotion/disease prevention
Women’s health initiatives

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21st Century

The 21st century brings challenges and opportunities.
It is estimated that 434,000 nurses will be needed by the year 2020.
The nursing shortage has increased the demand for nurses.
The Affordable Health Care Act offers opportunities for nurses to take the lead.

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Nursing and Health Care in the Future

Increased demand for primary health-care providers
Nurses should be permitted to practice to the full extent of their education.
Greater need for advanced practice nurses
Report from the IOM and Future of Nursing
Advocating for BSN education
Promoting educational mobility
Increase in diversity of nursing workforce

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Higher demand for safe, quality, and effective nursing care
Move toward population/community-based care
Nurses need to become politically active.
Nurses need to join nursing organizations that promote quality care.

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