Psychic distance is “based on perceived differences between a home country and a “foreign” country regardless of physical time and space factors which differs across diverse cultures.”


Psychic Distance


Psychic distance is “based on perceived differences between a home country and a “foreign” country regardless of physical time and space factors which differs across diverse cultures.” (“Psychic distance”,” n.d.)

Summarization of Article

Coldwell & Tasneem (2017) summarized that psychic distance was more of a myth than a reality when a company decided on expanding or moving into new country. Coldwell & Tasneem (2017) looked at Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) and how companies chose different countries to move or expand their business operation into. Research and data show that companies tended to choose foreign countries to expand their business operations into that closely mirrored and related to their employee’s psychic distance. Companies did this in hope of making their companies transition easier and more successful. However, research provided no evidence that a company’s success and or failure was directly linked to their employee’s psychic distance.

Compare and Contrast Articles

Azar & Drogendijk (2014) looked more into a firm’s psychic distance and the relation has on the firm’s performance. The hypothesis was that there was a relation between a firm’s psychic distance, innovation and performance. However, the results showed that there was no relationship or link between psychic distance and the firms performance, but was meditated by innovation.

Hanno (2014) contrasted the other two articles in that it shows how the effects of psychic distance has on a student and her professor and other students. It described and showed how students judged each other on their belief of how their culture was viewed in their eyes. However, at the end of the articled it showed how people’s psychic distance can cause people to have the wrong views and ideas of other people’s culture.

Sousa & Bradley (2006) look at individual psychic distance and cultural distance and how it’s had an effect on company moving into new countries. It found that individual psychic distance played a distinct role in a company being successful or not and manager should be aware of the impact of psychic distance will have on a foreign market.

Biblical Integration

Being aware and understanding peoples psychic distance is essential and key for the success of an organization. The course scripture that best fits the term psychic distance is Romans 12:2 and it stated “Do not conform any longer to the pattern of this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind. Then you will be able to test and approve what God’s will is—his good, pleasing and perfect will”

YouTube Video Integration

The YouTube Video described and explains what psychic distance is titled “What is PSYCHIC DISTANCE? What does PSYCHIC DISTANCE mean? PSYCHIC DISTANCE meaning & explanation.” uploaded by The Audiopedia on 30 September 2107. In this video it talks about what psychic distance is and what it means.


Psychic distance is important part to understand when it to comes to employees of a business. Knowing your employees psychic distance will help you capital on the strengths of it and minimize the negative effects of it. Understanding and using your employee’s psychic distance to the company’s advantage will in most cases dictate the company’s successes and failures.


Azar, G., & Drogendijk, R. (2014, September). Psychic distance, innovation, and firm performance. Retrieved from|A386744071&v=2.1&it=r&sid=summon&authCount=1

Coldwell, D., & Tasneem, J. (2017, July). The FDI psychic distance paradox: myth or reality?. Retrieved from

Hanno, J. (2014). The Case for Psychic Distance. Ploughshares, 40(4), 78-88. doi:10.1353/plo.2014.0092

“Psychic distance”. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Sousa, C., & Bradley, F. (2006, March 1). Cultural Distance and Psychic Distance: Two Peas in a Pod?. Retrieved from




An act, whether it is vocalized publicly or internalized, meant to disrupt the successful implementation of a new process or product because of an internal disagreement with someone or something.

Department chairs as change agents: leading change in resistant environments

Julie A. Gaubatz and David C. Ensminger published an article examining the challenges of implementing change in an academic environment by Department Chairs. Researchers found that the success of implementing changes largely depended on interpersonal relationships between subordinates and the managers who wish to make those changes (Ensminger & Gaubatz, 2017). Two examples from the article explained the end-results of employees who either, had a positive relationship with managers, or did not. Employees who had positive relationships with managers overwhelmingly performed tasks more efficiently than those who did not, challenging prior assumptions that technical acumen alone was the most significant consideration while planning the execution of new processes (Ensminger & Gaubatz, 2017).

Harvard Business Review

A Harvard Business Review (HBR) article had similar findings like the one mentioned above. Experts believe that too many organizations think employee participation and having technical knowledge is the only answer to making a project successful (Lawrence, n.d.). The HBR article said that change is a social concept (Lawrence, n.d.). However, unlike the first article, which focused on identifying ways to overcome resistance areas, the HBR research suggests preventing resistance before it starts is most important. This method–a proactive approach–allows managers to use employees better if they already know them. However, even though establishing rapport is more important than some other factors, managers should get employees involved early enough to help plan for technical considerations and limitations. Having that positive relationship may encourage employees to come forward to help willingly, and experts concluded that having authority with interpersonal connections are proven to yield the best results for implementing change.

Leading Innovation and Change: Assisting Employees in Lifting Where They Stand

The article “Leading Innovation and Change: Assisting Employees in Lifting Where They Stand” suggested several new explanations of why employees may be reluctant to change. The article explains that although people may display signs of resistance, it does not mean that they are not willing to change. It asserts that sometimes employees are ready and willing to change but do not understand the new processes, unlike the first two articles, which did not address the confusion aspect of implementing new changes (Urhuogo & Williams, 2011). The first section above mentioned how training is important if it is done correctly, however, if employees do not thoroughly understand the “why” in the new processes, it is likely that they are not going to understand the vision or how to perform the tasks to needed to make it successful. This is especially important if the change agent is not a subject matter expert.

Employee resistance may also be an indicator that everyone in management is not receptive to changes. Successful change in most organizations requires a Total Quality Management approach where everyone is engaged in achieving the vision. If managers do not provide adequate resources to the employees, they may become resistant to change as well, even if employees are not satisfied with the status quo. Employees may believe they are set up for failure because they lack the much-needed management support. Then, finally, the article concluded that getting employees involved in the process early was the key to successful innovation and change.

Improving Change Management: How Communication Nature Influences Resistance To Change

This article defined resistance as a form of communication that should not be overlooked. Most researchers viewed the resistance employees showed as people being difficult and having the inability to adapt. There is probably some truth to both, but researchers here believe that if employees resist the changes managers are implementing than it most likely means that managers did a poor job of communicating a clear vision (Esposito, Matos, & Simoes, 2014). Although the first article did not define the term the same, it talked about mitigating employee barriers which often result from miscommunication. In the end, all of the articles discussed getting employees involved in the processes of change as the solution for implementing change successfully.

Biblical Views

“By faith Moses, when had grown up, refused to be called as the son of Pharaoh’s daughter, because he preferred to endure the hardship of the people of God rather than enjoying the passing pleasures of sin” (Hebrews 11:24-25, AMP).

Just as Moses refused to be known as the son of Pharaoh’s daughter, which would have indicated that he was accepting of the temporary pleasures of sin, managers, leaders need to show the same resistance when it comes to implementing unpopular, but much-needed changes throughout organizations. Going along with the status quo is often easy for employees, even if they disagree because it is difficult to change makes things harder before getting better.


Ensminger, D. C, & Gaubatz, J. A. (2017). Department chairs as change agents: leading change in resistant environments. Educational Management Administration & Leadership 2017, Vol. 45(1) 141–163. doi:10.1177/1741143215587307. Retrieved from

Esposito, M., Matos, P., & Simoes, M. (2014). Improving change management: how communication nature influences resistance to change. Journal of Management Development Vol. 33 No. 4, 2014 pp. 324-341. DOI 10.1108/JMD-05-2012-0058 Retrieved from

Lawrence, P. R. (n.d.). How to deal with resistance to change. Retrieved from

Urhuogo, I., & Williams, V. (2011). Leading innovation and change: Assisting employees in lifting where they stand. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly, 2(2), 80-97. Retrieved from

Each must also post replies of at least 200 words to at least 2 classmates’ threads. For each thread, you must support your assertions with at least 3 scholarly citations in APA format as well as include at least 1 biblical integration. Each reply must cite at least 1 scholarly source or include 1 biblical integration. Scholarly resources must come from peer-reviewed journals.


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