Racism in the delivery of healthcare for Maori people

Write an essay that examines the presence of personal or institutional racism in the delivery or access to healthcare for Maori people in New Zealand.

Use public health examples, and refer to inequalities in health outcomes between Maori people and non-Maori from a wide range of literature, including international literature to assess whether the inequalities in healthcare and high morbidity and mortality rates for Maori in New Zealand are due to personal or institutional racism.

Please include all the following references in the bibliography and refer to these as well as other sources to support the arguments made in the essay. Please include 4 or more relevant quotes or citations per page.
1. Durie, M. (1994). Whaiora: Maori Health Development. Melbourne: Oxford Unversity Press.

2. Ellison-Loschmann, L., & Pearce, N. (2006). Improving access to health care among New Zealand’s Maori population. American Journal Public Health 96(4), 612-617.

3. Foliaki, S. & Pearce, N. (2003). Changing pattern of ill health for indigenous people. BMJ 2003; 327: 406-7 4. Harris, R., Tobias, M., Jeffreys, M., Waldegrave, K., Karlsen, S., & Nazroo, J. (2006a). Effects of self-reported racial discrimination and deprivation on Maori health and inequalities in New Zealand: Cross-sectional study. Lancet, 367, 2005-2009.
5. Harris, R., Tobias, M., Jeffreys, M., Waldegrave, K., Karlsen, S., & Nazroo, J. (2006b). Racism and health: The relationship between experience of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Social Science and Medicine, 63, 1428-1441.

6. Hill, S. (2008). Socio-economic inequalities in health. In K. Dew, & A. Matheson (Eds.), Understanding health inequalities in Aotearoa New Zealand (pp. 33-54). Dunedin: Otago University Press.
7. Jeffreys, M, Stevanovic, V., Tobias, M., Lewis, C., Ellison-Loschmann, L., Pearce, N., & Blakely, T. (2005). Ethnic inequalities in cancer survival in New Zealand: Linkage study. American Journal Public Health, 95, 834-837.

8. Ministry of Health. (2002). He Korowai Oranga: Maori Health Strategy. Wellington: Ministry of Health.

9. Ministry of Health. (2010). Tatau Kahukura: Maori Health Chart Book 2010, 2nd Edition. Wellington: Ministry of Health.
10. Ministry of Health. (2013) The Health of Maori Adults and Children. Wellington: Ministry of Health

11. Ministry of Health. (2001). The New Zealand Disability Strategy. Wellington: Ministry of Health

12. Ministry of Health. (2000). The New Zealand Health Strategy. Wellington: Ministry of Health
13. Ministry of Health. (2001). The Primary Health Strategy. Wellington: Ministry of Health

14. Ministry of Health. (2006). Whakatataka Tuarua: Maori Health Action Plan 2006-2011. Wellington: Ministry of Health.

15. Ministry of Social Development. (2010). The Social Report. Wellington: Ministry of Social Development.
16. Office of the Children’s Commissioner. (2012). Solutions to Child Poverty in New Zealand. A report by the Expert Advisory Group on Solutions to Child Poverty. Wellington: Office of the Children’s Commissioner.

17. Reid, P. (1999). Nga mahi whakahaehae a te tangata tiriti. In P. Davis, & K. Dew (Eds.), Health and Society in Aotearoa New Zealand. (pp. 83-93). Auckland: Oxford University Press.

18. Tobias, M., Blakely, T., Matheson, D., Rasanathan, K., & Atkinson, J. (2009). Changing trends in indigenous inequalities in mortality: Lessons from New Zealand. International Journal of Epidemiology, 38, 1711-1722.

19. Walker, T., Signal, L., Russell, M., Smiler, K., Tuhiwai-Ruru, R., & Otaki Community Health Centre, Te Wakahuia Hauora, Te Atianga a Hauiti Hauora, Turanga Health. (2008). The road we travel: Maori experience of cancer. New Zealand Medical Journal, 121(1279), 27-35.

20. Mitrou, F., Cooke, M., Lawrence, D., Povah, D., Mobila, E., Guimond, E., Zubrick, S.R. (2014). Gaps in Indigenous disadvantage not closing: a census cohort study of social determinants of health in Australia, Canada, and New Zealand from 1981–2006. BMC Public Health. 14: 201.

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