Reproductive System

Chapter 16

Reproductive System

Points to Ponder

What is mitosis and meiosis?
How many chromosomes do body and sex cells each have?
Understand the anatomy of both the male and female.
Know the functions of each structure in the male and female.
What are the 3 parts of a sperm?
How do hormones play a role in the male?
Explain the ovarian and uterine cycles.
Be able to discuss the levels of hormones during these cycles.
Where do fertilization and implantation occur?
Be able to discuss common birth control methods.
What is infertility? What can cause this?
What are the options if a person is infertile?
Should we treat people who are infertile? Why or why not?
Understand genital warts, genital herpes, HIV, hepatitis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and candidiasis.
Which of the above can be treated with antibiotics?
Which birth control methods can help prevent STDs?
DNA in body and sex cells

Body cells:

Each body cell has 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) within the nucleus

Cells that have pairs of chromosomes are called diploid (2N)

Sex cells:

Gametes (egg and sperm) have only 23 chromosomes (1 of each pair) in their nuclei

Cells that have only 1 of each pair of chromosomes is called haploid (N)

During fertilization a sperm and egg combine to form a zygote and the chromosome number is restored to the diploid number of 46

16.1 Human life cycle

Mitosis and meiosis


Is a type of duplication division in which a cell makes an exact copy of itself

This process is used for growth and repair of tissues

Used by body cells (cells other than sex cells)


Is a type of reduction division in which a cell halves the number of chromosomes

This process is used to form eggs and sperm

Used by gametes

16.1 Human life cycle

Male anatomy

Scrotum (1)

Testes (2)

Epididymis (2)

Vas deferens (2)

Urethra (1)

3 glands

Penis (1)

16.2 Male reproductive system

Male anatomy: Scrotum and testes


Sacs that hold the testes

Help regulate the temperature of the testes


Paired organs that produce sperm and male sex hormones (made by interstitial cells)

Composed of seminiferous tubules where sperm are being produced


Sperm mature and are stored here

16.2 Male reproductive system

Male anatomy: Scrotum and testes

16.2 Male reproductive system

Sperm production

Sperm are produced within the seminiferous tubules of the testes

Sertoli cells help nourish sperm and regulate the process of sperm production (spermatogenesis)

Sperm (spermatozoa) are stored and mature in the epididymis

16.2 Male reproductive system

Sperm anatomy

3 parts:

Head: covered by a cap called the acrosome which stores enzymes needed to penetrate the egg

Middle piece: contain mitochondria to make energy (ATP)

Tail: provides movement for the sperm

16.2 Male reproductive system

Male anatomy: Vas deferens and urethra

Vas deferens

Transports sperm to the urethra


Transports sperm out of the body

16.2 Male reproductive system

Male anatomy: 3 glands that contribute to semen

Seminal vesicles – produce a sugary fluid that provide energy for the sperm

Prostate gland – produces an alkaline fluid to help buffer the acidic pH in the vagina

Bulbourethral glands – produce mucus that acts as a lubricant in the urethra

16.2 Male reproductive system

Male anatomy: Penis


organ used for sexual intercourse and urination

Glans penis:

Intensely sensitive tip of the penis usually covered by foreskin

Circumcision is the removal of all or part of the foreskin

Erectile dysfunction (impotency) occurs when the erectile tissue does not expand enough to compress the veins

16.2 Male reproductive system

Hormonal regulation in males

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) – secreted by the thalamus to control release of other hormones

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) – promotes the production of sperm

Luteinizing hormone (LH) – controls the production of testosterone

Testosterone – important for normal development and functioning of the male reproductive organs

16.2 Male reproductive system

Hormonal regulation in males

16.2 Male reproductive system

Female anatomy

Genital tract:






External genitals (vulva):
Labia major
Labia minor
Mons pubis
16.3 Female reproductive system

Female anatomy: Genital tract

Ovaries – produce eggs and sex hormones

Oviducts – moves eggs and normal site of fertilization

Uterus – normal site of implantation and fetal development

Cervix – opening to the uterus that can dilate during childbirth

Vagina – birth canal and the copulatory organ of the female

16.3 Female reproductive system

Female anatomy: Genital tract

16.3 Female reproductive system

Female anatomy: External anatomy

Labia major – 2 large folds of fatty skin

Labia minor – 2 small folds just inside the labia major that contain the opening to the urethra and vagina

Mons pubis – fatty skin covered in coarse hair

Clitoris – erectile organ and site of intense sexual feeling

16.3 Female reproductive system

The ovarian cycle: The ovary

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