what are the most important considerations when interpreting achievement test scores why

I am looking for a 150-200-word response (each) to 2 questions. Each need at least two scholarly research sources related to this topic, and at least one in-text citation from each source included. I have provided 6 resources for Question 1 & 3 for Question 2

Question 1

What are the most important considerations when interpreting achievement test scores? Why? What are the most important considerations when making decisions based on achievement test scores? Why?


O’Brien, J., Winn, R., & Currier, K. (2014). Not all tests are created equal. Journal of Cases in Educational Leadership, 17(2), 41–48. doi:10.1177/1555458914528911

Brookhart, S. M., & Chen, F. (2015). The quality and effectiveness of descriptive rubrics. Educational Review, 67(3), 343–368. doi:10.1080/00131911.2014.929565

Holloway, J. H. (2001). The Use and Misuse of Standardized Tests. Educational Leadership, 59(1), 77-78. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/lo…

Jonsson, A., Mattheos, N., Svingby, G., & Attstrom, R. (2007). Dynamic assessment and the “Interactive Examination.” Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 10(4), 17–27. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/lo…

Jonsson, A., & Svingby, G. (2007). The use of scoring rubrics: Reliability, validity and educational consequences. Educational Research Review, 2(2), 130-144. doi:10.1016/j.edurev.2007.05.002

Skinner, E. A., Wellborn, J. G., & Connell, J. P. (1990). What it takes to do well in school and whether I’ve got it: A process model of perceived control and children’s engagement and achievement in school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1), 22. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.82.1.22

Question 2

What is the difference between item discrimination and item difficulty? In what ways are these measures valuable in the evaluation of a test? Why?


Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1995). Constructing validity: Basic issues in objective scale development. Psychological Assessment, 7(3), 309-319. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.7.3.309

Weiss, D. J. (1982). Improving measurement quality and efficiency with adaptive testing. Applied Psychological Measurement, 6(4), 473–492. doi:10.1177/014662168200600408

Weiss, D. J. (2013). Item banking, test development, and test delivery. In APA handbook of testing and assessment in psychology, Vol. 1: Test theory and testing and assessment in industrial and organizational psychology. (pp. 185–200). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/14047-010

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