Which of the following can be considered definitions of “theory”?


Biology 103



Date: _________________________________

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS: This final exam is worth 100 points.

There are three sections. The Multiple Choice section has 50questions worth 1 point each, for a total of 50 points. Fill-In the Blanks section has 7 questions for a total of 10 points. For the Short Answer section, you must choose to answer 8 of the 12 questions, and each question is worth 5 points, for a total of 40 points.

Multiple Choices:

Answer ALL of the questions in this section of the exam. Indicate your answer by highlighting your choice. Each question is worth 1 point.

1.Which of the following can be considered definitions of “theory”?

A)A theory can be an explanation of scientific laws.

B)A theory is an integrated explanation of numerous hypotheses, each supported by a large body of observations.

C)A theory is a condensation and simplification of many data that previously appeared unrelated.

D)A theory is a prediction for new data suggesting new relationships among a range of natural phenomena.

E)All of the above.

2. A gamate (cell) carries only one allele for each inherited character because the two alleles separate from each other during gamate production (meiosis). This statement defines

A) Monohybrid cross

B) Law of segregation

C) Genotype

D) Homologous chromosomes

E) All of the above

3.What is the correct sequence of steps in the scientific method?

I. State a problem

II. Analyze and interpret data

III. Develop a hypothesis

IV. Share the results with other scientists

V. Design and perform experiment to test the hypothesis

A)I – II -III -IV – V

B)III – I -V– II –IV

C)V – IV –III – II – I

D)I – III – V– II – IV

E)V – II –I – III -IV

4.To test a hypothesis about a given variable, experimental and control groups are tested in parallel. Which of the following best explains the dual experiments?

A)In the experimental group, a chosen variable is altered in a known way. In the control group, that chosen variable is not altered so a comparison can be made.

B)In the control group, a chosen variable is altered in a known way. In the experimental group, that chosen variable is not altered so a comparison can be made.

C)In the experimental group, a chosen variable plus all other variables are altered. In the control group, the chosen variable is altered; however, all other variables are held constant.

D)In the experimental and control groups, two different variables are altered.

E)Experimental and control groups experiments are identical and run in parallel to get repeatable results.

5. The smallest unit of life is the

A) cell

B) organelle

C) macromolecule

D) atom

6.You examine a cell under a microscope and you do not see a well defined nucleus. You conclude the cell must a _____________________ cell.

A) prokaryotic

B) eukaryotic

C) plant

D) animal

7. All of the following are examples of elements except?


B) water

C) hydrogen


8.Two atoms with the same atomic number, but different mass numbers are called_________.






9. Select the element that is not one of the four most common elements in living matter.






10.Edward was found to heterozygous (Ss) for the sickle-cell trait. The alleles represented by the letters S and s are

A. on the X and Y chromosomes

B. linked

C. on homologous chromosomes

D. both are present in each of Edward’s sperm cells

E. none of the above

11.The building blocks of proteins are

A. fatty acids

B. amino acids

C. nucleotides

D. carbohydrates

12. A substance with a pH greater than 7 is ___, while a substance with a pH less than 7 is___.

A)basic, acidic

B)acidic, basic

C)basic, neutral

D)neutral, acidic

E)neutral, basic

13.The bond in which 2 atoms share one or more pairs of electrons is a ______________ bond.





14.The energy required for photosynthesis is provided by?






15.The term below that includes the other terms is





16.An element has 43 protons and 50 neutrons. The atomic number of the element is






17.The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane is called ______.

A)facilitated diffusion

B)active transport




18.A dog gets many nutrients from its food including amino acids. Which of these can be built directly using the amino acids?




D)nucleic acids


19.Most carbohydrates in the human body are ___________________________.

A)used as building blocks for proteins

B)used as catalysts for reactions in cells

C)consumed as a source of energy

D)not easily absorbed into the bloodstream

E)not necessary for regular bodily functions

20.A scientist removed the plasma membranes from bacteria cells in a culture. She analyzed the cell membranes for specific molecules. Which of these was probably the most common type of molecule present in the bacteria plasma membranes?


B)nucleic acid

C)amino acid



21.The site of protein synthesis in the cell is ___________________________.

A)the mitochondria

B)the nucleus

C)the Golgi apparatus

D)the ribosomes

22.Cyanide is a poison that prevents mitochondria from using oxygen. As a result, the mitochondria cannot produce





E)nucleic acids

23. The replication of DNA ___________________________________________.

A)produces RNA molecules

B)produces completely new strands of DNA

C)produces two DNA molecules, each of which is half-“new” and half-“old” DNA

D)generates excessive DNA, which eventually causes the nucleus to divide

24.The form of RNA that is complementary to DNA and carries the code from the DNA to the site where the protein is synthesized is

A)messenger RNA

B)nuclear RNA

C)ribosomal RNA

D)transfer RNA

25.If the amounts of bases in a DNA molecule are measured, you would find that

A)A = C and G=T

B)A = G and C=T

C)T = A and C =G

D)A = U and C=G

E)U = Cand A =G

26.In humans, the allele for dimples (D) is dominant.The allele for not having dimples (d) is recessive. If a woman (DD) and a man (Dd) have four children, how many of the children will not have dimples?


B) 1

C) 2

D) 3

E) 4

27.Which of these statements best explains how genes and proteins are related?

A)Genes are segments of DNA that code for proteins.

B) Proteins are segments of DNA that code for genes.

C) Genes are segments of proteins that code for DNA.

D) Proteins are the building blocks of genes.

E) Genes are the building blocks of proteins.

28.Which of the following could not be a sequence of RNA?






29.Information stored in DNA is transferred from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells in the form of






30.Researchers are studying slider turtles. Slider turtles hatch on the beach and travel to the sea. The researchers discover that the larger baby turtles were more likely to survive than the smaller baby turtles. They hypothesized that the larger turtles could move more quickly toward the water than the smaller turtles, and therefore, the larger turtles reduced their exposure to predators. The survival advantage for the larger baby turtles is a result of ______.

A)natural selection

B)genetic engineering


D)artificial selection


31.The theory of natural selection states that

A) some live and some die in each generation.

B) only the largest and strongest survive.

C) random assortment of genes results in better characteristics in the following generations.

D)the best adapted individuals survive and reproduce, contributing the most genes to the next


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